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doi: 10.1097/01.NME.0000431739.13435.e3
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HIV/AIDS: One pandemic, many faces

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INSTRUCTIONS HIV/AIDS: One pandemic, many faces

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HIV/AIDS: One pandemic, many faces

GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide current information on HIV/AIDS virus transmission, prevention, and treatment options. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading the article and taking this test, you'll be able to: 1. Explain the transmission and life cycle of the HIV virus. 2. Describe testing for HIV/AIDS. 3. Discuss treatment protocols for HIV/AIDS and nursing considerations for patient care.

1. The HIV-2 virus

a. has a high transmission rate in its early stages.

b. is transmitted via the same modes as HIV-1.

c. doesn't affect individuals infected with HIV-1.

2. The primary target of the HIV virus in the human body is

a. the CD4 T cell

b. RNA.

c. DNA.

3. Many errors occurring during the virus's switch from RNA to DNA can

a. make the virus inactive.

b. work to the advantage of the human host.

c. make the virus resistant to medication.

4. Which statement about acute seroconversion is correct?

a. It occurs during the clinical latency period.

b. It occurs within 1 to 2 weeks following exposure.

c. It may be marked by flu-like symptoms.

5. The patient with HIV presenting with peripheral neuropathy, confusion, mood changes, and a very low T-cell count is likely experiencing

a. acute seroconversion.

b. clinical latency.

c. a very high viral load.

6. Most new HIV cases worldwide are caused by

a. heterosexual transmission.

b. I.drug use.

c. mother-to-child transmission.

7. HIV testing of pregnant women

a. is offered only to high-risk women.

b. is the recommended standard of care.

c. prevents vertical transmission of the virus.

8. Anti-HIV medications during pregnancy

a. should be administered when labor begins.

b. reduce the risk of transmission to the fetus.

c. prevent the need for the baby to be treated after birth.

9. The second highest risk behavior for contracting HIV is

a. unprotected anal, oral, or vaginal sex.

b. I.drug use.

c. needle sticks to healthcare workers.

10. Which of the following would you teach a high-risk patient about rapid HIV testing?

a. Rapid tests are only 82% accurate.

b. If the result is positive, a more specific test is required.

c. Home tests are conducted using a finger stick blood test.

11. The CDC HIV testing recommendations don't advise testing of

a. all pregnant women.

b. all adults.

c. all school-age children.

12. The goal of treatment in the HIV-positive population is to

a. prevent the virus from replicating.

b. remove obstacles to successful mutation.

c. reduce the number of T cells.

13. Which statement about HAART is accurate?

a. It's used only in cases of full blown AIDS.

b. Its treatment goal is to protect T cells and reduce the possibility of mutation.

c. It combines two or more drugs for short-term treatment.

14. Which of these drug classes blocks the HIV virus from inserting itself into the DNA of T cells?

a. protease inhibitors

b. transcriptase inhibitors

c. integrase inhibitors

15. A core aim of the national HIV/AIDS strategy is to

a. eliminate tuberculosis co-infections in this population.

b. develop new antiretroviral drugs.

c. improve health outcomes for people living with HIV.

16. Which opportunistic infections have a high incidence in HIV-positive children?

a. bacterial infections

b. viral pneumonias

c. fungal skin disorders

17. Couples considering pregnancy, where only the woman is HIV-positive, should be counseled that

a. if no open vaginal ulcers exist, there's no risk to the fetus.

b. there are several strategies to reduce the rate of transmission.

c. in vitro fertilization will prevent HIV in the fetus.

18. Patient teaching concerning antiretroviral medications is especially important because

a. stopping them or skipping doses allows the viral load to increase.

b. viral copies may enhance the immune system.

c. these medications can cure HIV/AIDS when properly administered.

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