INSTRUCTIONS Coronary artery disease: The plaque plague
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Coronary artery disease: The plaque plague
GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide information about the causes and symptoms of CAD, as well as treatments and prevention strategies. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading the article and taking this test, you'll be able to: 1. Describe the pathophysiologic changes in CAD. 2. Explain the symptoms of CAD and the diagnostic tests used to detect it. 3. Discuss the treatments used in CAD.
1. What percentage of the 785,000 Americans who have an MI each year will have a second MI?
2. The most common configuration of vulnerable plaque is a
a. blood clot with a thin cap.
b. lipid core with a hard cap.
c. lipid core with a thin cap.
3. Microvessels develop around plaque to
a. bring nutrients to the viable cells that remain.
b. allow blood circulation to bypass the plaque blockage.
c. deliver enzymes to dissolve the plaque.
4. A major danger created by the microvessels developing around the plaque is
a. an increase in the size of the plaque.
b. occlusion of the main vessel.
c. dislodgement of the plaque.
5. A common symptom absent in one-third of patients experiencing an MI is
a. pain radiating to the neck.
b. chest pain.
6. Decreased cardiac output is responsible for
a. low urine output.
b. a rise in biomarkers.
7. The shortened period of diastole during an MI means less blood is delivered to the
c. heart muscle.
8. Which ECG lead is used for a prominent display of the P-wave and QRS complex?
9. Elevation of the ST segment of 0.5 mm or more often indicates
a. partial blockage of a coronary artery.
b. a possible infarct.
10. Activity on the right side of the heart is observed with the
a. anterior lead V7.
b. inferior leads, such as aVF or II.
c. V6 and V7 leads on the patient's back.
11. Peak CK-MB levels indicating heart muscle damage after chest pain occur at
a. 6 hours.
b. 12 hours.
c. 24 hours.
12. An active MI is suggested by two CK-MB readings greater than
a. 0.5 U/L.
b. 3 U/L.
c. 5 U/L.
13. The main MI biomarker that detects even trace amounts of heart damage is
a. troponin I.
c. creatine kinase.
14. Keeping oxygen saturation above 95% by nasal cannula
a. can reverse cardiac muscle damage.
b. reduces activation of TXA2.
c. can lessen ischemic pain.
15. Which statement about nitroglycerin is accurate?
a. It's available only as sublingual tabs or for I.V. infusion.
b. It's the first drug given for pain relief of an MI.
c. It's a potent vasoconstrictor.
16. Which antiplatelet aggregation drug depends on low-dose aspirin to achieve its desired effect?
17. The antiplatelet aggregation drug contraindicated in patients with a history of intracranial bleeding is
18. Which statement about patients taking warfarin isn't accurate?
a. The antidote for warfarin is protamine sulfate.
b. Older patients are at increased risk for intracranial bleeds.
c. Patients should eat consistent amounts of foods containing vitamin K.
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