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doi: 10.1097/01.NME.0000382952.60393.9b
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Hypertension: The pressure's on

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INSTRUCTIONS Hypertension: The pressure's on

TEST INSTRUCTIONS
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Hypertension: The pressure's on

GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide the professional nurse with an update on hypertension and its management. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this article and taking this test, you'll be able to: 1. Discuss the pathophysiology, risk factors, and indicators of hypertension. 2. Describe the treatment goals and management of hypertensive patients.

1. One theory of hypertension development states that

a. changes in the arteriolar bed cause a decrease in TPR.

b. abnormally decreased tone in the sympathetic nervous system causes increased TPR.

c. increased arteriolar thickening caused by genetic factors leads to increased TPR.

2. Which statistic about hypertension is accurate?

a. 95% of hypertensive patients have primary hypertension.

b. 95% of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes have hypertension.

c. 60% of hypertensive patients with diabetes achieve BP control.

3. Risk factors for primary hypertension include

a. diabetes.

b. adrenal tumors.

c. arteriosclerosis.

4. Secondary hypertension may be caused by

a. smoking.

b. arteriosclerosis.

c. stress.

5. Which is least likely to be a sign or symptom of hypertension?

a. papilledema

b. nocturia

c. diminished peripheral pulses

6. Which statement about BP measurement is correct?

a. A cuff that's too large can register an artificially high reading.

b. Patients should rest at least 30 minutes before a BP reading.

c. A difference of greater than 20 mm Hg between arms may indicate subclavian vascular disease.

7. For a patient with diabetes, the goal of treatment is to maintain a BP of

a. 120/70 or lower.

b. 130/80 or lower.

c. 140/90 or lower.

8. Which is a recommended way to lower BP?

a. performing 15 minutes of aerobic exercise daily

b. reducing saturated fat intake

c. losing 3 to 4 pounds of excess weight/week

9. Which statement about the DASH diet is correct?

a. Dairy is the most essential part of this diet.

b. One month on the DASH diet usually lowers BP and LDL.

c. It recommends four servings of fresh fruits and vegetables daily.

10. Which statement about sodium intake is correct?

a. Most Americans consume between 2 and 3 g of sodium daily.

b. 10% of sodium intake comes from table and cooking salt.

c. A low-sodium food should contain less than 200 mg/serving.

11. Alcohol consumption recommendations indicate that

a. women may have up to 6 ounces of spirits daily.

b. men may consume 20 ounces of red wine daily.

c. 48 ounces of beer exceeds the daily limit for men.

12. Which drug class is usually a first-line therapy for hypertension?

a. thiazide diuretics

b. calcium channel blockers

c. ARBs

13. Calcium channel blockers are useful in hypertension for

a. causing arterial constriction.

b. increasing cardiac output.

c. patients unable to tolerate other drug types.

14. Which statement about the use of ACE inhibitors and ARBs is correct?

a. ARBs quickly reduce the vasoconstrictive action of angiotensin II.

b. Both stimulate the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems.

c. ACE inhibitors are contraindicated in patients with diabetes.

15. Education for hypertensive patients is critical because

a. about 75% stop their medications within 1 year.

b. BP control is achieved by only 50% of patients.

c. patients often believe their medications aren't working.

16. Which statement to your hypertensive patient will be most appropriate?

a. Following recommended lifestyle changes and medications can cure your hypertension.

b. It may take up to 2 to 3 months for your taste buds to acclimate to reduced salt intake.

c. Monitoring your BP at home is generally inaccurate and not advised.

17. Which statement about hypertensive patients with diabetes is correct?

a. Half of all patients with insulin-dependent diabetes have hypertension.

b. Only 25% of hypertensive patients with diabetes have their BP under control.

c. Left ventricular remodeling caused by hypertension is irreversible.

18. One major risk factor for cardiovascular problems in hypertensive patients is

a. a glomerular filtration rate of 60 mL/minute.

b. microalbuminuria.

c. a body mass index of greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2.

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