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Nursing:
doi: 10.1097/01.NURSE.0000397458.92532.44
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I.V. fluids What nurses need to know

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INSTRUCTIONS I.V. fluids: What nurses need to know

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IV Fluids: What nurses need to know

GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide nurses with a review of I.V. fluid therapy and its mechanisms for restoring homeostasis. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this article and taking this test, you should be able to: 1. Identify the main fluid compartments in the body. 2. Describe the mechanisms of action of various colloids and crystalloids. 3. Discuss nursing considerations for I.V. fluid administration.

1. The thirst center in the brain is triggered by

a. decreased hemoglobin.

b. increased blood osmolality.

c. decreased blood osmolality.

d. increased blood volume

2. Insensible water loss occurs through the

a. kidneys.

b. gastrointestinal tract.

c. lungs.

d. muscles.

3. Which fluid compartment contains cerebrospinal fluid?

a. interstitial

b. intravascular

c. intracellular

d. transcellular

4. Which person is likely to have the highest percentage of overall body water?

a. 19-year-old male

b. 25-year-old overweight female

c. 65-year-old female

d. 80-year-old healthy male

5. Normal osmolality for plasma and other body fluids ranges from

a. 200 to 265 mOsm/L.

b. 270 to 300 mOsm/L.

c. 310 to 370 mOsm/L.

d. 375 to 400 mOsm/L.

6. Isotonic fluids increase

a. osmosis.

b. active transport.

c. intracellular volume.

d. intravascular volume.

7. Which isotonic fluid is used to administer blood products?

a. 0.9% sodium chloride

b. LR

c. D5W

d. Ringer's solution

8. Which is the most physiologically adaptable I.V. fluid?

a. Ringer's solution

b. D5W

c. LR

d. 0.9% sodium chloride

9. Approximately how many liters of D5W are needed to provide a patient with 1,000 calories?

a. 3

b. 4

c. 5

d. 6

10. Overinfusion of isotonic fluids in patients treated for hypovolemia can cause

a. hypervolemia.

b. hypotension.

c. hyperglycemia.

d. hypernatremia.

11. Signs of hypervolemia include all

a. peripheral edema.

b. thready pulse.

c. dyspnea.

d. pulmonary crackles.

12. Which solution can be used to shift fluids into the cells?

a. 0.45% sodium chloride

b. Ringer's solution

c. D10W

d. 5% albumin

13. Older adult patients receiving hypotonic solutions should be monitored for

a. anxiety.

b. bradycardia.

c. confusion.

d. diarrhea.

14. Which of the following is hypertonic?

a. 0.33% sodium chloride

b. 2.5% D5W

c. 0.45% sodium chloride

d. 3% sodium chloride

15. Monitor patients receiving a 3% sodium chloride solution for

a. dehydration.

b. pulmonary edema.

c. increased ICP.

d. hyperglycemia.

16. Compared to crystalloids, colloid solutions

a. have a longer duration of action.

b. have a shorter duration of action.

c. require infusion of a larger total volume.

d. have a lower oncotic pressure.

17. One of the most commonly used colloids is

a. 5% albumin.

b. LMWD

c. HMWD

d. hetastarch

18. Colloid solutions can interfere with

a. glucose metabolism.

b. renal function.

c. liver function.

d. platelet function.

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