Abstract: In neurolymphomatosis, malignant lymphocytes infiltrate the peripheral nervous system in the presence of a known or unknown hematological malignancy. This report describes the findings of diffusion-weighted MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT in a 65-year-old man with hoarseness. Results revealed a mass with restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted imaging in the right visceral vascular space, increased uptake of 18F-FDG, and other masses at distant peripheral nerves. Restaging PET/CT showed involvement of the right brachial plexus and right sciatic nerve. Biopsy and immunohistochemistry of the right vagus nerve and cervical lymphadenopathy revealed a diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
From the *Department of Radiology, National Cancer Institute, Ministry of Health; Departments of †Radiology, ‡Oncology/Hematology, and §Pathology, Hospital São Vicente de Paulo; and ∥Department of Nuclear Medicine, Clínica Radiológica Luiz Felippe Mattoso, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Received for publication January 22, 2012; and revision accepted February 21, 2012.
Conflicts of interest and sources of funding: none declared.
Specific Information About Each Author:
Gustavo Santos Boasquevisque: acquisition and interpretation of data of magnet resonance images, drafting and revising the article, and final approval of the version to be published.
Juliana Guidoni: acquisition and interpretations of data of magnet resonance images.
Luis Alberto Moreira de Souza: interpretation of magnet resonance images.
Patricia Guimarães Gonçalves: clinical oncologist, responsible for acquisition of treatment data.
Cecilia Vianna de Andrade: pathologist, responsible for specimen data revision.
Felipe Vilella Pedras: acquisition and interpretation of data of PET/CT studies and drafting and revising the article.
Edson Mendes Boasquevisque: interpretation of data of magnet resonance images, drafting and revising the article, and final approval of the version to be published.
Eliana Teles Santos Boasquevisque: interpretation of data of magnet resonance images, drafting and revising the article, and final approval of the version to be published.
Reprints: Gustavo Santos Boasquevisque, MD, Rua Humaitá, 244, Bloco 2/708, Humaitá, 22261-001 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.