Skip Navigation LinksHome > February 2010 - Volume 32 - Issue 1 > Supplements for Strength-Power Athletes
Text sizing:
A
A
A
Strength & Conditioning Journal:
doi: 10.1519/SSC.0b013e3181c212b9
Article

Supplements for Strength-Power Athletes

Campbell, Bill I PhD, CSCS1; Wilborn, Colin D PhD, CSCS, ATC2; La Bounty, Paul M PhD, MPT, CSCS3

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

1School of Physical Education and Exercise Science, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida; 2College of Education, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, Belton, Texas; and 3School of Education, Baylor University, Waco, Texas

Bill I. Campbellis an assistant professor of Exercise Science and director of the Exercise and Performance Nutrition Laboratory at the University of South Florida

Colin D. Wilbornis an assistant professor of Exercise Science and director of the Human Performance Lab at the University of Mary Hardin-Baylor

Figure. No Caption A...
Figure. No Caption A...
Image Tools

Paul M. La Bountyan assistant professor of Anatomy, Physiology, and Nutrition at Baylor University

Figure. No Caption A...
Figure. No Caption A...
Image Tools
Collapse Box

Abstract

STRENGTH-POWER ATHLETES IMPROVE EXERCISE PERFORMANCE PRIMARILY BY IMPROVING THEIR SPORT-SPECIFIC SKILLS. IN ADDITION, EXERCISE PERFORMANCE CAN BE ENHANCED BY IMPROVING STRENGTH, LEAN MUSCLE MASS, AND ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE. SEVERAL SPORTS SUPPLEMENTS HAVE BEEN DOCUMENTED TO ENHANCE THESE ATTRIBUTES, INCLUDING CREATINE MONOHYDRATE, BETA-ALANINE, β-HYDROXY β-METHYLBUTYRATE, AND PROTEIN.

Back to Top | Article Outline

INTRODUCTION

There are several ways in which strength-power athletes can improve their anaerobic performance. The primary way to improve performance is via improving skills relative to their respective sports. Secondary to this, increases in muscle mass, muscular strength, muscular power, and reaction time all are correlated to improvements in exercise performance. Many sports supplements are marketed to athletes claiming to improve muscular strength, power, and body composition. The following review attempts to bring back into focus those nutritional ergogenic aids that are supported by the scientific literature to improve exercise and sports performance. In addition, all the sports supplements discussed in this article according to the cited literature appear to be safe when ingested for brief periods by healthy individuals. Four sports supplements will be reviewed in this article: creatine monohydrate, beta-alanine, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB), and protein (Table).

Table. Popular sport...
Table. Popular sport...
Image Tools

Of these 4 sports supplements, creatine has been shown to benefit the anaerobic athlete in hundreds of scientific investigations. Beta-alanine is the newest sports supplement to have been clinically investigated and which may prove beneficial to the anaerobic athlete. HMB has been reported to increase strength and lean body mass (most likely via its anticatabolic potential), but these findings have only been observed in untrained populations. Last, protein is essential to promote a positive net protein balance in conjunction with resistance exercise. For each of the sports supplements discussed, an effort is made to highlight only those studies that have been conducted on humans with the primary outcomes relating to improvements in body composition, muscular strength, muscular power, or anaerobic exercise performance.

The supplements are discussed in alphabetical order. It is important to note that while this article focuses on sports supplements, it is not the intent of the authors to convey that dietary supplements are to be the primary focus of nutrient intake. Rather, an assumption is made that the end user of this information has a sound nutritional program in place and that supplementation is by nature to be added to the athlete's existing dietary regimen.

Back to Top | Article Outline

BETA-ALANINE

BETA-ALANINE BACKGROUND

In comparison to the other clinically investigated sports supplements reviewed in this article, beta-alanine possesses the fewest clinical investigations demonstrating its effectiveness. Part of the reason for the lack of scientific inquiry is the fact that this supplement has recently been introduced, with the majority of its published articles occurring within the last 3 years (21-24,29,52,56-58,69). The main objective when supplementing with beta-alanine is to increase intramuscular concentrations of carnosine via the enzymatic control of carnosine synthase (Figure 1). Carnosine is a dipeptide comprising beta-alanine and histidine and has been shown to buffer pH (1), function as an antioxidant (4), and regulate muscle contractility by exerting effects on excitation-contraction coupling (1). Of these benefits of increasing intramuscular carnosine levels, it is its ability to buffer pH that presents the greatest potential to improve anaerobic exercise performance.

Figure 1
Figure 1
Image Tools

To obtain these aforementioned benefits of carnosine, it would seem logical to simply ingest supplemental carnosine. However, when consumed orally in humans, carnosine is rapidly hydrolyzed in blood plasma by the enzyme carnosinase. Independent ingestion of beta-alanine and histidine allows these 2 molecules to be transported into the skeletal muscle and be resynthesized into carnosine. It appears that beta-alanine is the amino acid that influences intramuscular carnosine levels the most (12). In fact, it has been demonstrated that 28 days of beta-alanine supplementation at a dosage of 4 to 6 g per day resulted in an increase of intramuscular levels of carnosine by approximately 60% (6,19).

Back to Top | Article Outline
BETA-ALANINE DOSING PROTOCOLS

As stated above, clinical trials providing beta-alanine in the context of exercise performance are few. Therefore, recommended dosages can only be based on what the majority of these trials have reported. On a total gram per day basis, beta-alanine ingestion has ranged from 2.4 to 6.4 g per day (22-24,29,52,56-58,69). In most of these trials, the total daily amount of beta-alanine ingestion was divided into 2 to 8 smaller doses, with the most common being 4 equal doses of 1.6 g per dosage (57,58,69). Due to the relatively few investigations reporting different intakes of beta-alanine, more research is needed to determine the optimal dosage of beta-alanine.

Back to Top | Article Outline
BETA-ALANINE AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

Relative to anaerobic exercise performance, there have been several studies that have investigated the potential benefits of beta-alanine supplementation. A practical study conducted by Hoffman et al. (23), instructed college football players to ingest 4.5 g of beta-alanine or placebo in a randomized double-blind fashion for 30 days. Beta-alanine supplementation began 3 weeks before preseason football training camp and continued for an additional 9 days during training camp. Anaerobic performance measures included a 60-second Wingate anaerobic power test and 3 line drills (200-yd shuttle runs with a 2-minute rest between sprints) assessed on day 1 of training camp. In addition, training logs (documenting resistance training volumes) and questionnaires on subjective feelings of soreness, fatigue, and practice intensity were also assessed. At the end of the 30-day investigative period, no differences were observed in the fatigue rate in the line drill but a statistical trend (p = 0.07) was observed for a lower fatigue rate in those subjects ingesting beta-alanine during the Wingate anaerobic power test. Significantly higher training volumes were reported for beta-alanine in the bench press exercise, and a statistical trend (p = 0.09) was reported for greater training volume for all resistance exercise sessions in the beta-alanine group. Last, subjective feelings of fatigue were significantly lower for the beta-alanine group than the placebo group. From this study, it appears that 30 days of beta-alanine ingestion did not significantly improve anaerobic performance but did have a positive effect on training volumes and lower subjective feelings of fatigue.

Elsewhere (29), whole body muscular strength and changes in body composition were assessed following 10 weeks of a resistance training program (4 days per week consisting of 2 upper body dominant sessions and 2 lower body dominant sessions) and beta-alanine supplementation at a dosage of 6.4 g per day. Participants included 26 healthy, male, nonresistance-trained Vietnamese students (average age of 21 years) who were not currently involved in any resistance training program. The authors reported that there were no significant differences between a beta-alanine group (ingesting 6.4 g per day) and a placebo group in whole body strength and body composition measures following 10 weeks of supplementation.

In contrast, another study (22) reported significant improvements in a high-intensity cycling capacity test following beta-alanine supplementation. Eight physically active male subjects were supplemented with beta-alanine or a placebo (in a double-blinded fashion) for a total of 10 weeks. The dosage of beta-alanine started at 4 grams per day in week 1 and progressed to 6.4 grams per day by week 10. Anaerobic exercise performance was assessed by total work done on a cycle ergometer at an intensity of 110% of the subject's maximum power output (defined as the maximum power output averaged over a 60-second period, usually during the last 75 seconds of the cycling test) and was performed prior to supplementation and at the conclusion of the 10-week supplemental period. At the end of the 10-week study, it was reported that those subjects ingesting beta-alanine significantly increased muscle carnosine by 80%. No increase was seen in control subjects. In terms of the high-intensity cycling test, it was reported that the total work accomplished was significantly improved (+16%) in the beta-alanine group, with no changes in performance in the control group.

Back to Top | Article Outline

CREATINE

CREATINE BACKGROUND

Creatine is currently the gold standard against which other nutritional sports supplements for strength and power athletes are compared. In fact, according to a position stand published by the International Society of Sports Nutrition, creatine monohydrate is the most effective ergogenic nutritional supplement currently available to athletes in terms of increasing high-intensity exercise capacity and lean body mass during training (6). It improves many aspects of anaerobic exercise performance, including strength, power, sprint performance, and/or work performed during multiple sets of maximal effort muscle contractions (34).

Increasing dietary availability of creatine serves to increase intramuscular total creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations (16,17,20,25) (Figure 2). Moreover, the availability of creatine and phosphocreatine plays a significant role in contributing to energy metabolism particularly during intense exercise (34). Theoretically, increasing the availability of intramuscular phosphocreatine would enhance cellular bioenergetics of the phosphagen system that is involved in high-intensity exercise performance (34).

Figure 2
Figure 2
Image Tools

Currently, several hundred peer-reviewed research studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of creatine supplementation, and of these studies, nearly 70% have reported a significant improvement in exercise capacity (34). However, not all research reports ergogenic results from creatine supplementation (54). When improvements in exercise capacity are not observed, the likely explanation is due to the lack of an increase in skeletal muscle creatine content (6,16). Studies reporting improvements in exercise performance are often correlated to this increase (6,16).

Many forms of creatine exist (13,18,37,44,49) in the marketplace, including creatine monohydrate, creatine anhydrous, creatine phosphate, effervescent creatine, creatine ethyl ester, serum creatine, and magnesium creatine. According to published studies, the various forms of creatine seem to offer no further advantages when compared with traditional creatine monohydrate in terms of increasing strength or performance (13,18,37,44,49). Another consideration in relation to the various formulation of creatine is cost. Many of the nontraditional creatine formulations (i.e., creatine ethyl ester, effervescent creatine, etc.) contain higher price points. In contrast, creatine monohydrate powder is much more favorable from an economic perspective.

Back to Top | Article Outline
CREATINE DOSING PROTOCOLS

Several supplementation protocols have demonstrated effectiveness in increasing muscle stores of creatine (7,15). The supplementation protocol that is typically described divides the dosage pattern into 2 phases: a loading phase and a maintenance phase. A typical loading phase consists of ingesting 20 g of creatine (∼0.3 g·kg−1·d−1) in 4 equal doses each day for approximately 5 days. Following the loading phase, a maintenance dose of 2 to 5 g daily (∼0.03 g·kg−1·d−1) for several weeks to months is typically recommended. This type of dosing protocol (i.e., loading) results in a greater rate of intramuscular creatine saturation. An alternative to the two-phase protocol was put forth by Hultman et al. (25). This protocol suggests ingesting creatine at a dosage of 3 g per day over an extended training period of at least 4 weeks. While this protocol results in a slower rate of increase of intramuscular creatine when compared with the loading protocol, creatine levels have been shown to reach levels similar to those of the loading protocol after 4 weeks (25).

Back to Top | Article Outline
CREATINE AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

An abundance of evidence supports the performance-enhancing effects of creatine ingestion. For example, short-term adaptations (typically following 5 days of creatine ingestion) include increased cycling power and total work performed on both the bench press and jump squat (6,45,50,59,65,68).

Long-term adaptations (typically several weeks to several months of creatine ingestion) when combining creatine supplementation with training include increased muscle creatine and PCr concentrations, lean body mass, strength, sprint performance, power, rate of force development, and muscle diameter (6,36,62,64). Over several weeks or months of training, subjects ingesting creatine monohydrate typically gain about twice as much body mass and/or fat-free mass (i.e., an extra 2 to 4 lb of muscle mass during 4-12 weeks of training) than subjects ingesting a placebo (6,31,41). The gains in muscle mass appear to be a result of an improved ability to perform high-intensity exercise via increased PCr availability and enhanced ATP synthesis, thereby enabling an athlete to elicit a greater training stimulus and promote greater muscular hypertrophy via increased myosin heavy chain expression possibly due to an increase in myogenic regulatory factors, myogenin and MRF-4 (6,66,67).

As Kreider (34) pointed out in his review of creatine, some have criticized earlier creatine research, suggesting that although performance gains have been observed in controlled laboratory settings, it was less clear whether these changes would improve athletic performance on the field (28,39). Subsequent to these criticisms, a number of studies have attempted to evaluate the effects of creatine supplementation in high-level collegiate athletes as well as on field performance in athletes. Published results have reported that creatine supplementation improved performances in strength-power athletes who participate in football (55), ice hockey (26), and squash (48). The quantity of clinical investigations conducted demonstrating positive results from creatine supplementation leads to the conclusion that it is the most effective nutritional supplement available today for strength-power athletes.

Back to Top | Article Outline

β-HYDROXY β-METHYLBUTYRATE

β-HYDROXY β-METHYLBUTYRATE BACKGROUND

HMB is a metabolite of the branched-chain amino acid leucine and is often associated with anticatabolic potential or the ability to preserve or minimize the loss of muscle tissue. The likely mechanism of action for anticatabolic potential of HMB is its inhibition of the increased expression of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (53). Preventing skeletal muscle degradation seen with intense training can preserve lean body mass, which may promote greater training intensity while theoretically maintaining accrued strength gains.

Nissen et al. (40) conducted the original research study highlighting the anticatabolic potential of HMB. In their investigation, untrained subjects ingested 0, 1.5, or 3 g of HMB per day (corresponding to a relative dosage of approximately 0.02 to 0.04 g·kg−1·d−1) and 1 of 2 protein levels (117 or 175 g per day) and resistance trained 3 days per week for 3 weeks. Protein breakdown was assessed by measuring urinary 3-methyl-histidine (3-MH). After the first week of the resistance training and HMB supplementation protocol, urinary 3-MH was increased by 94% in the control group and by 85 and 50% in those individuals ingesting 1.5 and 3 g of HMB per day, respectively. During the second week of the investigation, 3-MH levels were still elevated by 27% in the control group but were 4 and 15% below basal levels for the 1.5 and 3 g of HMB per day groups, respectively. Interestingly, 3-MH measures at the end of the third week of resistance training were not significantly different between the groups (8,40).

Other studies have also reported the anticatabolic effect HMB and its ability to suppress muscle damage (32,63). Because this research study used untrained participants, it is important to highlight research on this population relative to protein breakdown. Phillips et al. (44) compared resistance-trained men with untrained men in relation to protein synthesis and protein breakdown following an acute bout of lower limb resistance exercise (single-leg knee flexion). Following 10 sets (8 repetitions per set) of single-leg knee flexion at 120% of the subjects' predetermined single-leg 1 repetition maximum, it was reported that protein synthesis was significantly increased in both groups. Skeletal muscle protein breakdown, however, was significantly increased only in the untrained group. Considering the perceived benefits of HMB supplementation (anticatabolic potential) to the finding reported in the Nissen study (increase in protein breakdown in the untrained group), there is justification to recommend HMB to untrained individuals or those initiating a resistance training program to prevent the increased rates of protein breakdown that are observed.

Back to Top | Article Outline
β-HYDROXY β-METHYLBUTYRATE DOSING PROTOCOLS

There is a consistent dosage of HMB ingestion in human trials investigating exercise performance, anticatabolic potential, and lean body mass changes. In nearly every published investigation relative to HMB supplementation and exercise/body composition outcomes, 3 to 6 g per day was ingested (14,27,32,35,51,63). Three g per day (often divided into several doses) is the most common dosage used in these studies.

Back to Top | Article Outline
β-HYDROXY β-METHYLBUTYRATE AND LEAN BODY MASS

Is it possible that the anticatabolic effects of HMB can lead to gains in lean body mass? Unfortunately, the published scientific literature on this topic is equivocal. In a second arm to the study conducted by Nissen et al. (40), untrained male subjects ingested 3 g of HMB (approximately 0.04 g·kg−1·d−1) or a placebo for 7 weeks in conjunction with resistance training 6 days per week. In this study, fat-free mass increased in the HMB-supplemented group at various times throughout the investigative period but not at the conclusion of the 7-week investigational period. On the other hand, studies that used similar training programs and doses of HMB (3 g/d) have documented that HMB ingestion increases lean body mass (14,27).

However, not all published studies agree with the findings in regard to HMB increasing lean body mass (35,42,51). Each of these studies not showing an increase on lean body mass following HMB supplementation used approximately the same amount of HMB (approximately 3 g per day) as those studies that demonstrated increases in lean body mass. Furthermore, in HMB studies enlisting resistance-trained or highly trained athletes (35,42,51), there are consistent reports that no favorable changes are observed relative to strength and body composition (35,42,47,51). In contrast, when increases in fat-free mass are observed, they are reported when studying untrained subjects. Taking these findings into account, it appears that HMB may be beneficial (relative to increasing lean body mass) for an individual initiating a strength training program but not for athletes who are currently resistance trained.

Back to Top | Article Outline

PROTEIN

PROTEIN BACKGROUND

For the strength-power athlete, the value of supplemental protein is its role in protein synthesis and increasing lean muscle mass (in conjunction with an appropriate periodized resistance training program). Not only is protein intake required for skeletal muscle hypertrophy but protein is also needed to repair damaged cells and tissues that result from intense training. Central to the study of protein synthesis is energy intake and net protein balance. Net protein balance is equal to muscle protein synthesis minus muscle protein breakdown (2). In order for skeletal muscle hypertrophy to occur, there must be adequate energy intake (anabolic reactions are endergonic and therefore require adequate energy intake) and net protein balance must be positive (synthesis must exceed breakdown), which means that an adequate amount of protein must be ingested on a daily (and meal to meal) basis. For the strength-power athlete, 2 issues related to protein ingestion need to be addressed:

* The quantity of protein needed to enhance adaptations from training.

* The types of protein to be ingested.

Back to Top | Article Outline
RECOMMENDED PROTEIN INTAKES

Many factors need to be considered when determining an optimal amount of dietary protein for exercising individuals. These factors include protein quality, energy intake, carbohydrate intake, mode and intensity of exercise, and the timing of the protein intake (9). Protein recommendations are based on nitrogen balance assessment and amino acid tracer studies (46). The nitrogen balance technique involves quantifying the total amount of dietary protein that enters the body and the total amount of the nitrogen that is excreted (46). Nitrogen balance studies may underestimate the amount of protein required for optimal adaptations to training because these studies do not directly relate to exercise performance. Also, it is possible that protein intake above those levels deemed necessary by nitrogen balance studies may improve exercise performance by enhancing energy utilization or stimulating increases in fat-free mass in exercising individuals (38). The International Society of Sports Nutrition recommends that exercising individuals ingest protein ranging from 1.4 to 2.0 g per kg of body mass per day (9). More specifically, individuals engaging in endurance exercise should ingest levels at the lower end of this range, but those engaging in strength/power exercise should ingest levels at the upper end of this range (9).

Back to Top | Article Outline
TYPES OF PROTEINS

It is recommended that strength-power athletes obtain their protein requirements through whole foods. However, many athletes choose to obtain a portion of their protein intake from supplements such as:

* protein powders

* meal replacement drinks

* high protein energy bars

Reasons for supplementing the diet with protein supplements include convenience, simplicity, and the fact that protein supplements also have other benefits such as a longer shelf life than whole food sources in addition to being more cost effective in many cases. In addition, advances in food processing technology have allowed for the isolation of very high quality proteins from both animal and plant sources.

Two of the most popular types of proteins in supplemental form are whey and casein. Recent investigations have analyzed the serum amino acid responses to ingesting different protein types. Using amino acid tracer methodology, it was demonstrated that whey protein elicits a sharp rapid increase of plasma amino acids following ingestion, and in contrast, the consumption of casein induces a moderate prolonged increase in plasma amino acids that was sustained over a 7-hour postprandial period (3). The differences in the digestibility and absorption of these protein types may indicate that the ingestion of “slow” (casein) and “fast” (whey) proteins differentially mediates whole body protein metabolism due to their digestive properties (3). Other studies have shown similar differences in the peak plasma levels of amino acids following ingestion of whey and casein fractions (i.e., whey fractions peaking earlier than casein fractions) (5,10). Even though the digestibility and absorption of whey and casein differ, both types of protein have been reported to increase the anabolic response to an exercise stimulus (60,61).

To highlight the practical applications of protein supplementation, Kerksick et al. (30) examined the effects of whey protein supplementation on body composition and muscular strength (in addition to other variables) during 10 weeks of resistance training. Thirty-six resistance-trained men followed a 4 days per week resistance training program for 10 weeks and (in a double-blind manner) ingested 1 of 3 supplements:

* carbohydrate placebo (48 g per day)

* 40 g of whey protein plus 8 g of casein per day

* 40 g of whey protein plus 3 g of BCAAs and 5 g of glutamine per day

At the end of the 10-week intervention, significant increases in strength (measured via 1RM bench press and leg press) were observed in all groups. However, the whey plus casein group (+1.9 kg) experienced significantly greater increases in lean mass as compared with the carbohydrate placebo (0 kg) and whey-BCAA-glutamine group (−0.1 kg).

Other important considerations relative to protein intake are leucine content and protein timing. The branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to increase protein synthesis (11,33). Whey protein contains an abundant supply of branched-chain amino acids (including leucine), which in part explains its ability to consistently enhance protein synthesis. In relation to protein timing, a strategically planned protein intake regimen timed around a resistance training session is integral to elicit muscular hypertrophy (8,60,61). In conclusion, the International Society of Sports Nutrition recommends that when protein supplements are ingested, an attempt should be made to ensure that the protein contains both whey and casein components due to their ability to increase muscle protein accretion (9).

Back to Top | Article Outline

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

The strength and power athlete has distinct nutritional needs. The basis of any athlete's nutritional needs is a well-balanced diet and proper hydration. To maximize potential, however, the strength athlete should take advantage of the sport supplements that have a strong scientific basis. The first need is adequate protein intake. While there is much debate about what exactly those needs are, it is evident that to support protein synthesis and the addition of muscle mass, the strength athlete needs additional protein intake. In addition, creatine has been shown to increase strength, muscle mass, anaerobic power, and stamina. Creatine is one of the most rigorously investigated sports supplements, and the positive results associated with its use are found with little to no side effects. Two other potentially advantageous supplements are HMB and beta-alanine. HMB may spare protein by exerting anticatabolic properties. Beta-alanine may help the strength athlete primarily as a pH buffer, but more research needs to be conducted on this particular sports supplement before definitive conclusions can be made.

Back to Top | Article Outline

REFERENCES

1. Begum G, Cunliffe A, and Leveritt M. Physiological role of carnosine in contracting muscle. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 15: 493-514, 2005.

2. Biolo G, Maggi SP, Williams BD, Tipton KD, and Wolfe RR. Increased rates of muscle protein turnover and amino acid transport after resistance exercise in humans. Am J Physiol 268(pt 1): E514-E520, 1995.

3. Boirie Y, Dangin M, Gachon P, Vasson MP, Maubois JL, and Beaufrere B. Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 14930-14935, 1997.

4. Boldyrev AA, Dupin AM, Bunin AYa, Babizhaev MA, and Severin SE. The antioxidative properties of carnosine, a natural histidine containing dipeptide. Biochem Int 15: 1105-1113, 1987.

5. Bos C, Metges CC, Gaudichon C, Petzke KJ, Pueyo ME, Morens C, Everwand J, Benamouzig R, and Tome D. Postprandial kinetics of dietary amino acids are the main determinant of their metabolism after soy or milk protein ingestion in humans. J Nutr 133: 1308-1315, 2003.

6. Buford TW, Kreider RB, Stout JR, Greenwood M, Campbell B, Spano M, Ziegenfuss T, Lopez H, Landis J, and Antonio J. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 4: 6, 2007.

7. Burke DG, Smith-Palmer T, Holt LE, Head B, and Chilibeck PD.The effect of 7 days of creatine supplementation on 24-hour urinary creatine excretion. J Strength Cond Res 15: 59-62, 2001.

8. Campbell B. Nutritional supplements in sports and exercise. Greenwood M, Kalman DS, and Antonio J, eds. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2008. pp. 212.

9. Campbell B, Kreider RB, Ziegenfuss T, La Bounty P, Roberts M, Burke D, Landis J, Lopez H, and Antonio J. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 4: 8, 2007.

10. Dangin M, Boirie Y, Garcia-Rodenas C, Gachon P, Fauquant J, Callier P, Ballevre O, and Beaufrere B. The digestion rate of protein is an independent regulating factor of postprandial protein retention. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280: E340-E348, 2001.

11. Dreyer HC, Drummond MJ, Pennings B, Fujita S, Glynn EL, Chinkes DL, Dhanani S, Volpi E, and Rasmussen BB. Leucine-enriched essential amino acid and carbohydrate ingestion following resistance exercise enhances mTOR signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 294: E392-E400, 2008.

12. Dunnett M and Harris RC. Influence of oral beta-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius. Equine Vet J Suppl 30: 499-504, 1999.

13. Falk DJ, Heelan KA, Thyfault JP, and Koch AJ. Effects of effervescent creatine, ribose, and glutamine supplementation on muscular strength, muscular endurance, and body composition. J Strength Cond Res 17: 810-816, 2003.

14. Gallagher PM, Carrithers JA, Godard MP, Schulze KE, and Trappe SW. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate ingestion, Part I: effects on strength and fat free mass. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32: 2109-2115, 2000.

15. Greenhaff PL. Muscle creatine loading in humans: procedures and functional and metabolic effects. Presented at: 6th Internationl Conference on Guanidino Compounds in Biology and Medicine; September 1, 2001; Cincinatti, OH.

16. Greenhaff PL, Bodin K, Soderlund K, and Hultman E. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis. Am J Physiol 266: E725-E730, 1994.

17. Greenhaff PL, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Casey A, and Hultman E. The effect of oral creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle ATP degradation during repeated bouts of maximal voluntary exercise in man. J Physiol 476: 84P, 1994.

18. Greenwood M, Kreider R, Earnest C, Rassmussen C, and Almada A. Differences in creatine retention among three nutritional formulations of oral creatine supplements. J Exerc Physiol Online 6: 37-43, 2003.

19. Harris RC, Hill CA, Kim HJ, Bobbis L, Sale C, Harris DB, and Wise JA. Beta-alanine supplementation for 10 weeks significantly increased muscle carnosine levels. FASEB J 19: A1125, 2005.

20. Harris RC, Soderlund K, and Hultman E. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clin Sci (Colch) 83: 367-374, 1992.

21. Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, Boobis L, Coakley J, Kim HJ, Fallowfield JL, Hill CA, Sale C, and Wise JA. The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids 30: 279-289, 2006.

22. Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Harris BD, Sale C, Boobis LH, Kim CK, and Wise JA. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Amino Acids 32: 225-233, 2007.

23. Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Faigenbaum AD, Ross R, Kang J, Stout JR, and Wise JA. Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players. Nutr Res 28: 31-35, 2008.

24. Hoffman J, Ratamess N, Kang J, Mangine G, Faigenbaum A, and Stout J. Effect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 16: 430-446, 2006.

25. Hultman E, Soderlund K, Timmons JA, Cederblad G, and Greenhaff PL. Muscle creatine loading in men. J Appl Physiol 81: 232-237, 1996.

26. Jones AM, Atter T, and Georg KP. Oral creatine supplementation improves multiple sprint performance in elite ice-hockey players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 39: 189-196, 1999.

27. Jówko E, Ostaszewski P, Jank M, Sacharuk J, Zieniewicz A, Wilczak J, and Nissen S. Creatine and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) additively increase lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight-training program. Nutrition 17: 558-566, 2001.

28. Juhn MS and Tarnopolsky M. Oral creatine supplementation and athletic performance: a critical review. Clin J Sport Med 8: 286-297, 1998.

29. Kendrick IP, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Kim CK, Dang VH, Lam TQ, Bui TT, Smith M, and Wise JA. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition. Amino Acids 34: 547-554, 2008.

30. Kerksick CM, Rasmussen CJ, Lancaster SL, Magu B, Smith P, Melton C, Greenwood M, Almada AL, Earnest CP, and Kreider RB. The effects of protein and amino acid supplementation on performance and training adaptations during ten weeks of resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 20: 643-653, 2006.

31. Kirksey KB, Stone MH, Warren BJ, Johnson RL, Stone M, Haff GG, Williams FE, and Proulx C. The effects of 6 weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation on performance measures and body composition in collegiate track and field athletes. J Strength Cond Res 13: 148-156, 1999.

32. Knitter AE, Panton L, Rathmacher JA, Petersen A, and Sharp R. Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on muscle damage after a prolonged run. J Appl Physiol 89: 1340-1344, 2000.

33. Koopman R, Wagenmakers AJ, Manders RJ, Zorenc AH, Senden JM, Gorselink M, Keizer HA, and van Loon LJ. Combined ingestion of protein and free leucine with carbohydrate increases postexercise muscle protein synthesis in vivo in male subjects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288: E645-E653, 2005.

34. Kreider RB. Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations. Mol Cell Biochem 244: 89-94, 2003.

35. Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, and Almada AL. Effects of calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during resistance-training on markers of catabolism, body composition and strength. Int J Sports Med 20: 503-509, 1999.

36. Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, Grindstaff P, Plisk S, Reinardy J, Cantler E, and Almada AL. Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30: 73-82, 1998.

37. Kreider RB, Willoughby D, Greenwood M, Parise G, Payne E, and Tarnopolsky M. Effects of serum creatine supplementation on muscle creatine and phosphagen levels. J Exerc Physiol Online 6: 24-33, 2003.

38. Lemon PW. Beyond the zone: protein needs of active individuals. J Am Coll Nutr 19(Suppl): S513-S521, 2000.

39. Mujika I and Padilla S. Creatine supplementation as an ergogenic acid for sports performance in highly trained athletes: a critical review. Int J Sports Med 18: 491-496, 1997.

40. Nissen S, Sharp R, Ray M, Rathmacher JA, Rice D, Fuller JC Jr, Connelly AS, and Abumrad N. Effect of leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on muscle metabolism during resistance-exercise training. J Appl Physiol 81: 2095-2104, 1996.

41. Noonan D, Berg K, Latin RW, Wagner JC, and Reimers K. Effects of varying dosages of oral creatine relative to fat free body mass on strength and body composition. J Strength Cond Res 12: 104-108, 1998.

42. O'Connor DM and Crowe MJ. Effects of six weeks of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and HMB/creatine supplementation on strength, power, and anthropometry of highly trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 21: 419-423, 2007.

43. Peeters BM, Lantz CD, and Mayhew JL. Effect of oral creatine monohydrate and creatine phosphate supplementation on maximal strength indices, body composition, and blood pressure. J Strength Cond Res 13: 3-9, 1999.

44. Phillips SM, Tipton KD, Ferrando AA, and Wolfe RR. Resistance training reduces the acute exercise-induced increase in muscle protein turnover. Am J Physiol 276(1 pt 1): E118-E124, 1999.

45. Preen D, Dawson B, Goodman C, Lawrence S, Beilby J, and Ching S. Effect of creatine loading on long-term sprint exercise performance and metabolism. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33: 814-821, 2001.

46. Rand WM, Pellett PL, and Young VR. Meta-analysis of nitrogen balance studies for estimating protein requirements in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr 77(1): 109-127, 2003.

47. Ransone J, Neighbors K, Lefavi R, and Chromiak J. The effect of beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate on muscular strength and body composition in collegiate football players. J Strength Cond Res 17(1): 34-39, 2003.

48. Romer LM, Barrington JP, and Jeukendrup AE. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on high intensity, intermittent exercise performance in competitive squash players. Int J Sports Med 22: 546-552, 2001.

49. Selsby JT, DiSilvestro RA, and Devor ST. Mg2+-creatine chelate and a low-dose creatine supplementation regimen improve exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 18: 311-315, 2004.

50. Skare OC, Skadberg, and Wisnes AR. Creatine supplementation improves sprint performance in male sprinters. Scand J Med Sci Sports 11: 96-102, 2001.

51. Slater G, Jenkins D, Logan P, Lee H, Vukovich M, Rathmacher JA, and Hahn AG. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation does not affect changes in strength or body composition during resistance training in trained men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 11: 384-396, 2001.

52. Smith AE, Moon JR, Kendall KL, Graef JL, Lockwood CM, Walter AA, Beck TW, Cramer JT, and Stout JR. The effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on neuromuscular fatigue and muscle function. Eur J Appl Physiol 105: 357-363, 2009.

53. Smith HJ, Wyke SM, and Tisdale MJ. Mechanism of the attenuation of proteolysis-inducing factor stimulated protein degradation in muscle by beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate. Cancer Res 64: 8731-8735, 2004.

54. Stevenson SW and Dudley GA. Creatine loading, resistance exercise performance, and muscle mechanics. J Strength Cond Res 15: 413-419, 2001.

55. Stone MH, Sanborn K, Smith LL, O'Bryant HS, Hoke T, Utter AC, Johnson RL, Boros R, Hruby J, Pierce KC, Stone ME, and Garner B. Effects of in-season (5 weeks) creatine and pyruvate supplementation on anaerobic performance and body composition in American football players. Int J Sport Nutr 9: 146-165, 1999.

56. Stout JR, Cramer JT, Mielke M, O'Kroy J, Torok DJ, and Zoeller RF. Effects of twenty-eight days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold. J Strength Cond Res 20: 928-931, 2006.

57. Stout JR, Cramer JT, Zoeller RF, Torok D, Costa P, Hoffman JR, Harris RC, and O'Kroy J. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Amino Acids 32: 381-386, 2007.

58. Stout JR, Graves BS, Smith AE, Hartman MJ, Cramer JT, Beck TW, and Harris RC.The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55-92 years): A double-blind randomized study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 5: 21, 2008.

59. Tarnopolsky MA and MacLennan DP. Creatine monohydrate supplementation enhances high-intensity exercise performance in males and females. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 10: 452-463, 2000.

60. Tipton KD, Elliott TA, Cree MG, Aarsland AA, Sanford AP, and Wolfe RR. Stimulation of net muscle protein synthesis by whey protein ingestion before and after exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292(1): E71-E76, 2007.

61. Tipton KD, Elliott TA, Cree MG, Wolf SE, Sanford AP, and Wolfe RR. Ingestion of casein and whey proteins result in muscle anabolism after resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36: 2073-2081, 2004.

62. Vandenberghe K, Goris M, Van Hecke P, Van Leemputte M, Vangerven L, and Hespel P. Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training. J Appl Physiol 83: 2055-2063, 1997.

63. van Someren KA, Edwards AJ, and Howatson G. Supplementation with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) reduces signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage in man. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 15: 413-424, 2005.

64. Volek JS, Duncan ND, Mazzetti SA, Staron RS, Putukian M, Gomez AL, Pearson DR, Fink WJ, and Kraemer WJ. Performance and muscle fiber adaptations to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31: 1147-1156, 1999.

65. Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Bush JA, Boetes M, Incledon T, Clark KL, and Lynch JM. Creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance during high-intensity resistance exercise. J Am Diet Assoc 97: 765-770, 1997.

66. Willoughby DS and Rosene JM. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myosin heavy chain expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33: 1674-1681, 2001.

67. Willoughby DS and Rosene JM. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myogenic regulatory factor expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35: 923-929, 2003.

68. Wiroth JB, Bermon S, Andrei S, Dalloz E, Heberturne X, and Dolisi C. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on maximal pedaling performance in older adults. Eur J Appl Physiol 84: 533-539, 2001.

69. Zoeller RF, Stout JR, O'kroy JA, Torok DJ, and Mielke M. Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on aerobic power, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and time to exhaustion. Amino Acids 33: 505-510, 2007.

Keywords:

sports nutrition; sports supplements; creatine; HMB; beta-alanine; protein

© 2010 National Strength and Conditioning Association

Login

Article Tools

Images

Share

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.