ABSTRACT: THE EMERGING FIELD OF PRECISION MEDICINE EMPHASIZES AN INDIVIDUALIZED APPROACH TO PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT OF DISEASE. USING INFORMATION FROM AN INDIVIDUAL'S GENETICS, ENVIRONMENT AND LIFESTYLE, EPIGENETICS, AND OTHER FIELDS IN PRECISION MEDICINE, PRACTITIONERS CAN MAXIMIZE RESOURCES BY TARGETING PATHOLOGY AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE ON THE MOLECULAR LEVEL. HOWEVER, PRACTITIONERS MAY NOT BE AWARE OF TOPICS WITHIN THIS FIELD. THEREFORE, THE PURPOSE OF THIS REVIEW IS TO INTRODUCE BASIC CONCEPTS IN PRECISION MEDICINE TO HIGHLIGHT THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATION TO SPORTS MEDICINE AND PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT. THIS REVIEW PROVIDES PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF SOME CURRENTLY AVAILABLE PRECISION MEDICINE CONCEPTS IN SPORT.
1Department of Athletic Training, Nicole Wertheim College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, Florida;
2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Colleges of Arts, Sciences and Education, Florida International University, Miami, Florida;
3Biomolecular Sciences Institute, Florida International University, Miami, Florida;
4Miami Orthopedic and Sports Medicine Institute, Baptist Health South Florida, Coral Gables, Florida;
5The SPORT Center, Division of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio;
Departments of 6Pediatrics and
7Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio;
8The Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention, Waltham, Massachusetts; and
9Department of Orthopaedics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Address correspondence to Dr. Alicia M. Montalvo, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: Y. Liu is currently receiving a grant (R01ES023569) from the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences. G. D. Myer is currently receiving grants (R21AR065068-01A1 and U01AR067997) from the National Institutes of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal, and Skin Diseases. The remaining authors report no conflicts of interest and no source of funding.
Alicia M. Montalvo is an assistant professor in the Department of Athletic Training at Florida International University.
Yuk-Ching Tse-Dinh is a professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and is the founding director of the Biomolecular Sciences Institute at Florida International University.
Yuan Liu is an associate professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Florida International University.
Michael Swartzon is a physician, Medical Director of Primary Care Sports Medicine, and Fellowship Director of the Primary Care Sports Medicine Fellowship at Miami Orthopedic and Sports Medicine Institute, Associate Professor at Florida International University and team physician for the Miami Dolphins and Florida International University.
Keith S. Hechtman is an orthopedic surgeon board certified in orthopedics and sports medicine. He is a founding member of the UHZ Sports Medicine Institute and the Miami Orthopedic and Sports Medicine Institute, Doctor's Hospital, Coral Gables, FL. He is also the clinical professor and head team physician for Florida International University.
Gregory D. Myer is the director of Research and the director of the Human Performance Laboratory for the Division of Sports Medicine at Cincinnati Children's Hospital.