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The Back Squat: A Proposed Assessment of Functional Deficits and Technical Factors That Limit Performance

Myer, Gregory D. PhD, CSCS*D1,2,3,4; Kushner, Adam M. BS, CSCS1; Brent, Jensen L. BS, CSCS5; Schoenfeld, Brad J. PhD, CSCS, FNSCA6; Hugentobler, Jason PT, DPT, CSCS1,7; Lloyd, Rhodri S. PhD, CSCS*D8; Vermeil, Al MS, RSCC*E9,10; Chu, Donald A. PhD, PT, ATC, CSCS, FNSCA10,11,12; Harbin, Jason MS13; McGill, Stuart M. PhD14

Strength & Conditioning Journal: December 2014 - Volume 36 - Issue 6 - p 4–27
doi: 10.1519/SSC.0000000000000103
Article

ABSTRACT FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT COMPETENCY IS ESSENTIAL FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION AND FOR REDUCING INJURY RISK, WHICH ARE BOTH KEY ELEMENTS OF HEALTH PROMOTION. THE SQUAT MOVEMENT PATTERN IS ARGUABLY ONE OF THE MOST CRITICAL FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENTS NECESSARY TO IMPROVE SPORT PERFORMANCE, TO REDUCE INJURY RISK, AND TO SUPPORT LIFELONG PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. BASED ON CURRENT EVIDENCE, THIS FIRST (1 OF 2) REPORT DECONSTRUCTS THE TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF THE BACK SQUAT AND PRESENTS A NOVEL DYNAMIC SCREENING TOOL THAT INCORPORATES IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES FOR KNOWN FUNCTIONAL DEFICITS. THE FOLLOW-UP REPORT WILL OUTLINE TARGETED CORRECTIVE METHODOLOGY FOR EACH OF THESE FUNCTIONAL DEFICITS.

1Division of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio;

2Department of Pediatrics and Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio;

3Sports Health & Performance Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio;

4The Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention, Waltham, Massachusetts;

5The Academy of Sports Performance, Cincinnati, Ohio;

6Department of Health Sciences, CUNY Lehman College, Bronx, New York;

7Division of Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio;

8Cardiff School of Sport, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom;

9Titleist Performance Institute, Oceanside, California;

10Athercare Fitness and Rehabilitation Clinic, Alameda, California;

11Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions, Provo, Utah;

12Ohlone College, Newark, California;

13BEAT Personal Training, Cincinnati, Ohio; and

14Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario

Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: The authors would like to acknowledge funding support from National Institutes of Health.

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Gregory D. Myeris director of Research and the Human Performance Laboratory for the Division of Sports Medicine at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and holds primary academic appointments in the Departments of Pediatrics and Orthopaedic Surgery within the College of Medicine at University of Cincinnati.

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Adam M. Kushneris a Clinical Research Coordinator in the Human Performance Laboratory for the Division of Sports Medicine at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.

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Jensen L. Brentis the owner and director of training at The Academy of Sports Performance in Cincinnati, and head strength and conditioning coach for the Cincinnati Kelts Rugby Football Club.

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Brad J. Schoenfeldis an assistant professor in exercise science at CUNY Lehman College and director of their Human Performance Laboratory.

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Jason Hugentobleris a sports medicine physical therapist at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.

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Rhodri S. Lloydis a senior lecturer in Strength and Conditioning at Cardiff Metropolitan University.

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Al Vermeilis President of Vermeil Sports and Fitness, Inc. specializing in athletic assessment, conditioning and training.

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Donald A. Chuis the director of the Athercare Fitness and Rehabilitation Clinic in Pleasanton, CA, and a professor and adjunct faculty at Ohlone College.

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Jason Harbinis the head trainer at Beat Personal Training.

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Stuart M. McGillis a professor of Spine Biomechanics at the University of Waterloo.

© 2014 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association