summary: The traditional resistance training exercise begins and ends with zero velocity of the person and any external resistance (barbell, dumbbell, etc.). However, several factors exist that will influence the magnitude and direction of the forces required to move the external resistance during the course of the exercise. These forces, along with those necessary to move associated body segments, will then influence the joint torque required and the associated muscle forces creating the torque. The goal of this article is to examine these factors through discussion of the biceps curl.
(C) 2007 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association