Skip Navigation LinksHome > May 2014 - Volume 28 - Issue 5 > The Effects of Elapsed Time After Warm-Up on Subsequent Exer...
Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research:
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000291
Original Research

The Effects of Elapsed Time After Warm-Up on Subsequent Exercise Performance in a Cold Environment

Spitz, Marissa G.1,2; Kenefick, Robert W.2; Mitchell, Joel B.1

Collapse Box


Abstract: Spitz, MG, Kenefick, RW, and Mitchell, JB. The effects of elapsed time after warm-up on subsequent exercise performance in a cold environment. J Strength Cond Res 28(5): 1351–1357, 2014—Athletes often compete in cold environments and may face delays because of weather or race logistics between performance of a warm-up and the start of the race. This study sought to determine, (a) whether a delay after warm-up affects subsequent time trial (TT) performance and (b) if exposure to a cold environment has an additive effect. We hypothesized that after a warm-up, 30 minutes of rest in a cold environment would negatively affect subsequent rowing and running performance. In a temperate (temp; 24° C) or cold (cold; 5° C) environment, 5 rowers (33 ± 10 years; 83 ± 12 kg) and 5 runners (23 ± 2 years; 65 ± 8 kg) performed a 15-minute standardized warm-up followed by a 5- or 30-minute rest and then performed a 2-km rowing or 2.4 km running TT. The 5-minute rest following warm-up in the temperate environment (5Temp) served as the control trial to which the other experimental trials (5Cold; 30Temp; and 30Cold) were compared. Heart rate, lactate, and esophageal (Tes) and skin (Tsk) temperatures were measured throughout. Postrest and post-TT, Tes, and Tsk were lowest in the 30Cold trials. The greatest decrement in TT performance vs. 5Temp occurred in 30Cold (−4.0%; difference of 20 seconds). This difference is considered to have practical importance, as it was greater than the reported day-to-day variation for events of this type. We conclude that longer elapsed time following warm-up, combined with cold air exposure, results in potentially important reductions in exercise performance. Athletes should consider the appropriate timing of warm-up. In addition, performance may be preserved by maintaining skin and core temperatures following a warm-up, via clothing or other means.

Copyright © 2014 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.



Article Tools


Article Level Metrics

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.