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Allometric Grip Strength Norms for Children of Hawaiian Lineage

Kocher, Morgan H.; Romine, Rebecca K.; Stickley, Christopher D.; Morgan, Charles F.; Resnick, Portia B.; Hetzler, Ronald K.

Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: October 2017 - Volume 31 - Issue 10 - p 2794–2807
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001711
Original Research

Abstract: Kocher, MH, Romine, RK, Stickley, CD, Morgan, CF, Resnick, PB, and Hetzler, RK. Allometric grip strength norms for children of Hawaiian lineage. J Strength Cond Res 31(10): 2794–2807, 2017—The purpose of the study was to determine allometric exponents for scaling grip strength in children that effectively control for body mass (BM) and stature (Ht) and to develop normative grip strength data for Hawaiian children. One thousand, four hundred thirty-seven students (754 boys) from a rural community in Hawaii participated in this 5-year study, resulting in 2,567 data points. Handgrip strength, BM, and Ht were collected every year. Multiple log-linear regression was used to determine allometric exponents for BM and Ht. Appropriateness of the allometric model was assessed through regression diagnostics, including normality of residuals and homoscedasticity. Allometrically scaled, ratio-scaled, and unscaled grip strength were then correlated with BM and Ht to examine the effectiveness of the procedure in controlling for body size. Allometric exponents for BM and Ht were calculated separately for each age group of boys and girls to satisfy the common exponent and group difference principles described by Vanderburgh. Unscaled grip strength had moderate to strong positive correlations with BM and Ht (p ≤ 0.05 for all) for all age groups. Ratio-scaled handgrip strength had significant moderate to strong negative correlations with BM (p ≤ 0.05 for all) and, to a lesser extent, Ht (p ≤ 0.05 for 8- to 12-year-old boys; p ≤ 0.05 for 8- to 12- and 14-year-old girls). Correlations between allometrically scaled handgrip strength and BM and Ht were not significant and approached zero. This study was the first to allometrically scale handgrip strength for BM and Ht in Hawaiian children. Allometric scaling applied to grip strength provides a useful expression of grip strength free of the confounding influence of body size.

Department of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Science, College of Education, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawaii

Address correspondence to Ronald K. Hetzler, hetzler@hawaii.edu.

Copyright © 2017 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.