Abstract: Fry, AC, Kudrna, RA, Falvo, MJ, Bloomer, RJ, Moore, CA, Schilling, BK, and Weiss, LW. Kansas squat test: A reliable indicator of short-term anaerobic power. J Strength Cond Res 28(3): 630–635, 2014—The purposes of this study were to establish stability reliability of a measure of lower-body anaerobic power, the Kansas squat test (KST), and to compare the KST with the commonly used Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) for lower-body power. Fourteen resistance-trained men (mean ± SD; age = 24.2 ± 3.6 years) performed both the KST and the WAnT twice on separate occasions. The KST consisted of using an external dynamometer to measure mean repetition power while performing 15 repetitions of speed squats using 70% of 1 repetition maximum system mass (barbell + body mass), initiating each repetition at 6-second intervals. Repetition power, mean power for all 15 repetitions, and % fatigue for the KST were all reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.754–0.937; p ≤ 0.05). There were no differences between tests for the mean power for all repetitions or relative fatigue (p ≤ 0.05) and no significant differences between tests for any individual repetition (test × repetition interaction, p < 0.05). Although absolute values were different (p > 0.05), significant correlations were found between the KST and WAnT for mean (r = 0.752) and maximum (r = 0.775) test powers but not for relative fatigue (r = 0.174). Lactate (HLa) responses were greater for the WAnT compared with the KST. These data indicate that the KST is reliable for resistance-trained men, and that measures of maximum and mean test powers for the KST are highly correlated to those values for the WAnT, but fatigue rates and HLa responses were not correlated. It appears that the KST is a lifting-specific anaerobic power and power endurance test that emphasizes phosphagen metabolism and may be used to assess training-induced changes in lower-body power.