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Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research:
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182986cc1
Original Research

Changes of Muscle Mechanics Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency and Reconstruction

Hsiao, Shih-Fen1,2,3; Chou, Pei-Hsi4,5; Hsu, Horng-Chaung6,7; Lue, Yi-Jing1,2,3

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Abstract

Abstract: Hsiao, S-F, Chou, P-H, Hsu, H-C, and Lue, Y-J. Changes of muscle mechanics associated with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency and reconstruction. J Strength Cond Res 28(2): 390–400, 2014—Isometric and isokinetic knee strength deficits were examined on patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury before and after ACL reconstruction. Muscle strengths of the uninjured and injured knees were measured from an ACL injured (n = 12) and a control (n = 15) group. Five isometric (10, 30, 50, 70, and 90° of knee flexion) and 5 isokinetic (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250°·s−1) strengths of quadriceps and hamstrings were measured prereconstruction and postreconstruction (3 and 6 months). Compared with the controls, the uninjured knee showed normal strength and patterns of length-tension and force-velocity relationships. Compared with the uninjured knee, the injured knees showed a generally 25–30% decrease in quadriceps and hamstrings strength with normal patterns of length-tension and force-velocity relationships. By 3 months of reconstruction, weakness of quadriceps of the injured knees was exacerbated, particularly at lengthened positions (∼ 40% of the uninjured knees at knee flexion 70 and 90°) and at slower velocities (∼35% of the uninjured knees at the 50 and 100°·s−1, p < 0.05), with flattened patterns of mechanical output. By 6 months of reconstruction, the quadriceps of the injured knees still showed significant weakness (∼50% of the uninjured knees) in both contraction types (isometric at knee flexion 90° and isokinetic at 50°·s−1, p < 0.05). The hamstrings of the injured knees had not shown significant changes after reconstruction. A strengthening program placing emphasis on greater knee flexion angles and slower movement speed with sufficient training duration post ACL reconstruction is recommended because of long-lasting and exacerbated weakness during 3 and 6 months postreconstruction.

Copyright © 2014 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.

 

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