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Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research:
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825fce65
Original Research

Biomechanical Analysis of Standing Long Jump From Varying Starting Positions

Mackala, Krzysztof1; Stodółka, Jacek1; Siemienski, Adam2; Ćoh, Milan3

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Abstract

Abstract: Mackala, K, Stodółka, J, Siemienski, A, and Ćoh, M. Biomechanical analysis of standing long jump from varying starting positions. J Strength Cond Res 27(10): 2674–2684, 2013—The purpose of this study was (a) to investigate the effect of the different foot movement (placement) during take-off and the initial knee joint angle used in standing long jump by the ground reaction forces analysis and 3-dimensional motion analysis (BTS SMART motion) and (b) investigate how the jump performances of different foot placement is related to the electromyography (EMG) activity (Noraxon) of 3 selected muscle groups (m. gastrocnemius, m. gluteus maximus, m. rectus femoris, m. tibialis anterior, m. biceps femoris, and m. vastus medialis). Six high caliber sprinters (100 m: 10.87 ± 0.38 seconds and 400 m: 46.75 ± 1.05 seconds) performed a series of jumps from parallel and straddle foot placement at take-off on a 2 force platform (Kistler model 9286B) to determine if a different pattern of take-off improves jumping distance. Using kinematic and kinetic data, the knee joint angle, the trajectories of center of mass (COM), magnitude of take-off peak force, and impulse during take-off phase were calculated. Average standing long jump performances with straddle foot placement were 13.58 cm (5.18%) above that from parallel feet placement. The take-off velocity with 90° knee initial angle initiation of take-off was not different (1.18 and 1.17 m·s−1, respectively) between the 2 jumps. The take-off angles on the COM trajectory also showed differences (69.87 and 66.8°, respectively) between each other. The contribution (EMG activation) made by the 6 muscles were almost the same during all phases for the 2 jumps; however, some differences can be found, in either unilateral (single leg) or sums of both legs (bilateral) measurements. A recommendation can be formulated that the contribution of straddle foot placement during take-off can significantly increase the value of power measurement especially when the evaluation requires a complex movement structure with the division on the left and right legs, for example, sprint start from block.

Copyright © 2013 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.

 

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