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Influence of Sprint Acceleration Stance Kinetics on Velocity and Step Kinematics in Field Sport Athletes

Lockie, Robert G.1; Murphy, Aron J.2; Schultz, Adrian B.1; Jeffriess, Matthew D.1; Callaghan, Samuel J.1

Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: September 2013 - Volume 27 - Issue 9 - p 2494–2503
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31827f5103
Original Research

Abstract: Lockie, RG, Murphy, AJ, Schultz, AB, Jeffriess, MD, and Callaghan, SJ. Influence of sprint acceleration stance kinetics on velocity and step kinematics in field sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 27(9): 2494–2503, 2013—The interaction between step kinematics and stance kinetics determines sprint velocity. However, the influence that stance kinetics has on effective acceleration in field sport athletes requires clarification. About 25 men (age = 22.4 ± 3.2 years; mass = 82.8 ± 7.2 kg; height = 1.81 ± 0.07 m) completed twelve 10-m sprints, 6 sprints each for kinematic and kinetic assessment. Pearson's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between 0–5, 5–10, and 0–10 m velocity; step kinematics (mean step length [SL], step frequency, contact time [CT], flight time over each interval); and stance kinetics (relative vertical, horizontal, and resultant force and impulse; resultant force angle; ratio of horizontal to resultant force [RatF] for the first, second, and last contacts within the 10-m sprint). Relationships were found between 0–5, 5–10, and 0–10 m SL and 0–5 and 0–10 m velocity (r = 0.397–0.535). CT of 0–5 and 0–10 m correlated with 5–10 m velocity (r = −0.506 and −0.477, respectively). Last contact vertical force correlated with 5–10 m velocity (r = 0.405). Relationships were established between the second and last contact vertical and resultant force and CT over all intervals (r = −0.398 to 0.569). First and second contact vertical impulse correlated with 0–5 m SL (r = 0.434 and 0.442, respectively). Subjects produced resultant force angles and RatF suitable for horizontal force production. Faster acceleration in field sport athletes involved longer steps, with shorter CT. Greater vertical force production was linked with shorter CT, illustrating efficient force production. Greater SLs during acceleration were facilitated by higher vertical impulse and appropriate horizontal force. Speed training for field sport athletes should be tailored to encourage these technique adaptations.

1Exercise and Sport Science Department, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, Australia

2Sports Studies, Exercise and Sports Science, and Clinical Exercise Physiology Department, School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, Australia

Address correspondence to Robert G. Lockie, robert.lockie@newcastle.edu.au.

Copyright © 2013 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.