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Comparison of Three Baseball-Specific 6-Week Training Programs on Throwing Velocity in High School Baseball Players

Escamilla, Rafael F.1; Ionno, Michele2; deMahy, M. Scott3; Fleisig, Glenn S.4; Wilk, Kevin E.5; Yamashiro, Kyle6; Mikla, Tony6; Paulos, Lonnie7; Andrews, James R.4,8

The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: July 2012 - Volume 26 - Issue 7 - p 1767–1781
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182578301
Original Research

Escamilla, RF, Ionno, M, deMahy, MS, Fleisig, GS, Wilk, KE, Yamashiro, K, Mikla, T, Paulos, L, and Andrews, JR. Comparison of three baseball-specific 6-week training programs on throwing velocity in high school baseball players. J Strength Cond Res 26(7): 1767–1781, 2012. Throwing velocity is an important baseball performance variable for baseball pitchers, because greater throwing velocity results in less time for hitters to make a decision to swing. Throwing velocity is also an important baseball performance variable for position players, because greater throwing velocity results in decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base. This study compared the effects of 3 baseball-specific 6-week training programs on maximum throwing velocity. Sixty-eight high school baseball players 14–17 years of age were randomly and equally divided into 3 training groups and a nontraining control group. The 3 training groups were the Throwers Ten (TT), Keiser Pneumatic (KP), and Plyometric (PLY). Each training group trained 3 d·wk−1 for 6 weeks, which comprised approximately 5–10 minutes for warm-up, 45 minutes of resistance training, and 5–10 for cool-down. Throwing velocity was assessed before (pretest) and just after (posttest) the 6-week training program for all the subjects. A 2-factor repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc paired t-tests was used to assess throwing velocity differences (p < 0.05). Compared with pretest throwing velocity values, posttest throwing velocity values were significantly greater in the TT group (1.7% increase), the KP group (1.2% increase), and the PLY group (2.0% increase) but not significantly different in the control group. These results demonstrate that all 3 training programs were effective in increasing throwing velocity in high school baseball players, but the results of this study did not demonstrate that 1 resistance training program was more effective than another resistance training program in increasing throwing velocity.

1Department of Physical Therapy, California State University, Sacramento, California

2Department of Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas

3Andrews Institute Rehabilitation, Gulf Breeze, Florida

4American Sports Medicine Institute (ASMI), Birmingham, Alabama

5Champion Sports Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama

6Results Physical Therapy and Training Center, Sacramento, California

7Paulos Sports Injury and Joint Preservation Clinic, Salt Lake City, Utah

8Andrews Research and Education Institute at the Andrews Institute, Gulf Breeze, Florida

Address correspondence to Rafael Escamilla,

© 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association