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Mechanically Braked Elliptical Wingate Test: Modification Considerations, Load Optimization, and Reliability

Ozkaya, Ozgur1; Colakoglu, Muzaffer2; Kuzucu, Erinc O.1; Yildiztepe, Engin3

Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: May 2012 - Volume 26 - Issue 5 - p 1313–1323
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822e81ab
Original Research

Abstract: Ozkaya, O, Colakoglu, M, Kuzucu, EO, and Yildiztepe, E. Mechanically braked elliptical wingate test: modification considerations, load optimization, and reliability. J Strength Cond Res 26(5): 1313–1323, 2012—The 30-second, all-out Wingate test evaluates anaerobic performance using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer (cycle Wingate test). A recent study showed that using a modified electromagnetically braked elliptical trainer for Wingate testing (EWT) leads to greater power outcomes because of larger muscle group recruitment. The main purpose of this study was to modify an elliptical trainer using an easily understandable mechanical brake system instead of an electromagnetically braked modification. Our secondary aim was to determine a proper test load for the EWT to reveal the most efficient anaerobic test outcomes such as peak power (PP), average power (AP), minimum power (MP), power drop (PD), and fatigue index ratio (FI%) and to evaluate the retest reliability of the selected test load. Delta lactate responses (ΔLa) were also analyzed to confirm all the anaerobic performance of the athletes. Thirty healthy and well-trained male university athletes were selected to participate in the study. By analysis of variance, an 18% body mass workload yielded significantly greater test outcomes (PP = 19.5 ± 2.4 W·kg−1, AP = 13.7 ± 1.7 W·kg−1, PD = 27.9 ± 5 W·s−1, FI% = 58.4 ± 3.3%, and ΔLa = 15.4 ± 1.7 mM) than the other (12–24% body mass) tested loads (p < 0.05). Test and retest results for relative PP, AP, MP, PD, FI%, and ΔLa were highly correlated (r = 0.97, 0.98, 0.94, 0.91, 0.81, and 0.95, respectively). In conclusion, it was found that the mechanically braked modification of an elliptical trainer successfully estimated anaerobic power and capacity. A workload of 18% body mass was optimal for measuring maximal and reliable anaerobic power outcomes. Anaerobic testing using an EWT may be more useful to athletes and coaches than traditional cycle ergometers because a greater proportion of muscle groups are worked during exercise on an elliptical trainer.

1Coaching Education Department, School of Physical Education and Sports, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey

2Coaching Education Department, School of Physical Education and Sports, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey

3Department of Statistics, Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir, Turkey

Address correspondence to Ozgur Ozkaya,

© 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association