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Effect of Various Warm-Up Devices on Bat Velocity of Intercollegiate Softball Players

Szymanski, David J1; Bassett, Kylie E1; Beiser, Erik J1; Till, Megan E1; Medlin, Greg L1; Beam, Jason R2; Derenne, Coop3

Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research:
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31821b7cde
Original Research

Szymanski, DJ, Bassett, KE, Beiser, EJ, Till, ME, Medlin, GL, Beam, JR, and Derenne, C. Effect of various warm-up devices on bat velocity of intercollegiate softball players. J Strength Cond Res 26(1): 199–205, 2012—Numerous warm-up devices are available for use by softball players while they are in the on-deck circle. It is difficult to know which warm-up device produces the greatest bat velocity (BV) in the batter's box for softball players because on-deck studies with these individuals are sparse. Because the majority of warm-up device research has been conducted with baseball players, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of various warm-up devices on the BV of female intercollegiate softball players and compare the results with those of male baseball players. A secondary purpose was to evaluate 2 new commercially available resistance devices as warm-up aids. Nineteen Division I intercollegiate softball players (age = 19.8 ± 1.2 years, height = 167.0 ± 4.7 cm, body mass = 69.2 ± 8.6 kg, lean body mass = 49.6 ± 3.6 kg, % body fat = 27.9 ± 5.9) participated in a warm-up with 1 of 8 resistance devices on separate days. Each of the 8 testing sessions had players perform a standardized dynamic warm-up, 3 maximal dry swings mimicking their normal game swing with the assigned warm-up device, 2 comfortable dry swings with a standard 83.8-cm, 652-g (33-in., 23-oz) softball bat followed by 3 maximal game swings (20-second rest between swings) while hitting a softball off a batting tee with the same standard softball bat. Results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in BV after using any of the 8 warm-up devices (510.3–2,721.5 g or 18–96 oz) similar to in previous baseball research. This indicates that the results for both male and female intercollegiate players are similar and that intercollegiate softball players can use any of the 8 warm-up devices in the on-deck circle and have similar BVs. However, similar to in other previous baseball research, it is not recommended that female intercollegiate softball players warm up with the popular commercial donut ring in the on-deck circle because it produced the slowest BV.

Author Information

1Department of Kinesiology, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, Louisiana; 2Department of Health, Exercise, and Sports Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico; and 3Department of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Science, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Manoa, Hawaii

Address correspondence to David J. Szymanski,

© 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association