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Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme/Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Predicting Athletic Performances of Italian Young Soccer Players

Micheli, Matteo Levi1; Gulisano, Massimo2; Morucci, Gabriele2; Punzi, Tiziana2; Ruggiero, Marco3; Ceroti, Marco4; Marella, Mario1; Castellini, Elena1; Pacini, Stefania2

Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: August 2011 - Volume 25 - Issue 8 - pp 2084-2091
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31820238aa
Original Research

Micheli, ML, Gulisano, M, Morucci, G, Punzi, T, Ruggiero, M, Ceroti, M, Marella, M, Castellini, E, and Pacini, S. Angiotensin converting enzyme/vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and bioelectrical impedance analysis in predicting athletic performances of Italian young soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 25(8): 2084-2091, 2011—We evaluated the association between 2 genetic polymorphisms known to be involved in fitness and performance, and anthropometric features, body composition, and athletic performances in young male soccer players with the goal of identifying genetic profiles that can be used to achieve maximal results from training. One hundred twenty-five medium-high-level male soccer players were genotyped for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D, and vitamin D receptor (VDR) FokI gene polymorphisms and scored for anthropometric measurements, body composition, and athletic performance. Body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, resistance, reactance, impedance, phase angle (PA), and body cell mass were measured. Athletic performance was evaluated by squat jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), 2-kg medicine ball throw, 10- and 20-m sprint time. We observed that the homozygous ff genotype of the VDR gene was significantly more represented in young soccer players than in a matched sedentary population. Values of reactance and PA were differently distributed in ACE and VDR genotypes with high mean values in subjects with DD (ACE) and FF (VDR) genotypes. No correlation was observed between ACE or VDR genotypes and 2-kg medicine ball throw, 10- and 20-m sprint times. The ID genotype of ACE was associated with the best performances in squat jump and CMJ. Our results suggest that determination of ACE and VDR genotypes might help select those young athletes harboring the most favorable genetic potential to succeed in soccer.

1Training Methodology and Applied Biomechanics Laboratory, Technical Division, Italian Football Federation (FIGC), Coverciano, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Anatomy, Histology and Forensic Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 3Department of Experimental Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; and 4ISPO-Scientific Institute of Tuscany, Florence, Italy

This study is supported by grants from the Università degli Studi di Firenze.

Address correspondence to stefania.pacini@unifi.it

© 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association