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Time Course of Changes in Performance and Inflammatory Responses After Acute Plyometric Exercise

Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios1; Fatouros, Ioannis G1; Gourgoulis, Vassilios1; Avloniti, Alexandra1; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z2; Nikolaidis, Michalis G2,3; Douroudos, Ioannis1; Michailidis, Yiannis1; Beneka, Anastasia1; Malliou, Paraskevi1; Tofas, Trifon2; Georgiadis, Ilias1; Mandalidis, Dimitrios4; Taxildaris, Kyriakos1

Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: May 2010 - Volume 24 - Issue 5 - pp 1389-1398
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d1d318
Original Article

Chatzinikolaou, A, Fatouros, IG, Gourgoulis, V, Avloniti, A, Jamurtas, AZ, Nikolaidis, MG, Douroudos, I, Michailidis, Y, Beneka, A, Malliou, P, Tofas, T, Georgiadis, I, Mandalidis, D, and Taxildaris, K. Time course of changes in performance and inflammatory responses after acute plyometric exercise. J Strength Cond Res 24(5): 1389-1398, 2010-The objectives of the present investigation were to study the inflammatory and performance responses after an acute bout of intense plyometric exercise during a prolonged recovery period. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (P, n = 12) that performed intense plyometric exercises or a control group (C, n = 12) that rested. The delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), knee range of motion (KROM), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, white blood cell count, C reactive protein (CRP), uric acid (UA), cortisol, testosterone, IL-6, IL-1b strength (isometric and isokinetic), and countermovement (CMJ) and static (SJ) jumping performance were measured at rest, immediately postexercise and at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours of recovery. Lactate was measured at rest and postexercise. Strength remained unchanged throughout recovery, but CMJ and SJ declined (p < 0.05) by 8-20%. P induced a marked rise in DOMS, CK, and LDH (peaked 24-48 hours postexercise) and a KROM decline. An acute-phase inflammatory response consisting of leukocytosis (postexercise and at 24 hours), an IL-6, IL-1b, CRP, and cortisol elevation (during the first 24 hours of recovery) and a delayed increase of UA (peaked at 48 hours) and testosterone (peaked at 72 hours) was observed in P. The results of this investigation indicate that performing an acute bout of intense plyometric exercise may induce a short-term muscle damage and marked but transient inflammatory responses. Jumping performance seems to deteriorate for as long as 72 hours postexercise, whereas strength appears to remain unchanged. The acute-phase inflammatory response after a plyometric exercise protocol appears to follow the same pattern as in other exercise models. These results clearly indicate the need of sufficient recovery between successive plyometric exercise training sessions.

1Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Democritus University of Thrace, Komotini, Greece; 2Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece; 3Institute of Human Performance and Rehabilitation, Center for Research and Technology-Thessaly, Trikala, Greece; and 4Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Address correspondence to Dr. Ioannis G. Fatouros, ifatouro@phyed.duth.gr.

© 2010 National Strength and Conditioning Association