Levin, GT, Mcguigan, MR, and Laursen, PB. Effect of concurrent resistance and endurance training on physiologic and performance parameters of well-trained endurance cyclists. J Strength Cond Res 23(8): 2280-2286, 2009-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of concurrent resistance and endurance cycle training on physiologic and performance parameters of cyclists. Before and after a 6-week training intervention period, 14 well-trained male cyclists completed a maximal graded exercise test, a 30-km dynamic cycling test with 3 intermittent 250-m and 1-km sprints, and a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat test for the assessment of lower-limb strength. Subjects were allocated into 2 groups: a resistance training group (RT; n = 7) that completed a 6-week undulating, periodized resistance training program (3/wk) in conjunction with their regular cycle training and a control group (CON; n = 7) that maintained their usual cycle training. Upon completion of the training intervention, there was no change in graded exercise test parameters in either group, but the RT group showed a significantly greater increase in 1RM squat strength compared with CON (p < 0.05). Moreover, the change in 30-km time trial and sprinting performance did not differ between RT and CON, except for the final 1-km sprint where the percent change in 1-km final sprint performance was greater in CON (+11%) compared with RT (−5%). In conclusion, although concurrent resistance and endurance training in well-trained cyclists enhanced 1RM strength, it did not improve overall cycle time trial performance and in fact was shown to reduce 1-km final cycle sprint performance compared with a CON group performing their normal cycle training.