Cesar, MC, Borin, JP, Gonelli, PRG, Simões, RA, Souza, TMF, and Montebelo, MIL. The effect of local muscle endurance training on cardiorespiratory capacity in young women. J Strength Cond Res 23(6): 1637-1643, 2009-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of local muscle endurance training on maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold in young women. Nineteen untrained women, ranging in age from 18 to 26 years, were included in the study and assigned to two groups: the control group (n = 10), and the resistance training group (n = 9). The following variables were obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks: body mass; maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate, maximal oxygen pulse, oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold, heart rate at the ventilatory threshold, and oxygen pulse at the ventilatory threshold assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing on treadmill; 1-repetition maximum (RM) tests in bench press, latissimus pull down, military press, lying barbell extension, standing barbell curls, leg press, knee extension, and hamstring curl. The training group underwent resistance strength training. Loading during training followed the concept of maximum repetitions. Each session was defined as the performance of three sets of 15RM with a 60-second rest between sets and exercises. No significant changes were observed in the control group before and after 12 weeks (p > 0.05). All 1RM tests increased after training (p ≤ 0.01) in the training group, but no significant change was observed in body mass (p > 0.05). Cardiopulmonary variables showed no significant differences before and after resistance training (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that the local muscle endurance training realized produces no improvement in cardiorespiratory capacity in young women.