Hoffman, JR, Ratamess, NA, Klatt, M, Faigenbaum, AD, Ross, RE, Tranchina, NM, McCurley, RC, Kang, J, and Kraemer, WJ. Comparison between different off-season resistance training programs in Division III American college football players. J Strength Cond Res 23(1): 11-19, 2009-The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of periodization and to compare different periodization models in resistance trained American football players. Fifty-one experienced resistance trained American football players of an NCAA Division III football team (after 10 weeks of active rest) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups that differed only in the manipulation of the intensity and volume of training during a 15-week off-season resistance training program. Group 1 participated in a nonperiodized (NP) training program, group 2 participated in a traditional periodized linear (PL) training program, and group 3 participated in a planned nonlinear periodized (PNL) training program. Strength and power testing occurred before training (PRE), after 7 weeks of training (MID), and at the end of the training program (POST). Significant increases in maximal (1-repetition maximum [1RM]) squat, 1RM bench press, and vertical jump were observed from PRE to MID for all groups; these increases were still significantly greater at POST; however, no MID to POST changes were seen. Significant PRE to POST improvements in the medicine ball throw (MBT) were seen for PL group only. The results do not provide a clear indication as to the most effective training program for strength and power enhancements in already trained football players. Interestingly, recovery of training-related performances was achieved after only 7 weeks of training, yet further gains were not observed. These data indicate that longer periods of training may be needed after a long-term active recovery period and that active recovery may need to be dramatically shortened to better optimize strength and power in previously trained football players.