You could be reading the full-text of this article now if you...

If you have access to this article through your institution,
you can view this article in

Are Acute Effects of Maximal Dynamic Contractions on Upper-Body Ballistic Performance Load Specific?

Markovic, Goran1; Simek, Sanja1; Bradic, Asim2

Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research:
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318182227e
Original Research

Markovic, G, Simek, S, and Bradic, A. Are acute effects of maximal dynamic contractions on upper-body ballistic performance load specific? J Strength Cond Res 22(6): 1811-1815, 2008-This study investigated the acute effects of upper-body maximal dynamic contractions on maximal throwing speed with 0.55- and 4-kg medicine balls. It was hypothesized that heavy preloading would transiently improve throwing performance only when overcoming the heavier of the two loads. Twenty-three male volunteers were randomly allocated into experimental (n = 11) and control (n = 12) groups. Both groups performed initial and final seated medicine ball throws from the chest, and the maximal medicine ball speed was measured by means of a radar gun. Between the two measurements, the control group rested passively for 15 minutes, and the experimental group performed three sets of three-repetition maximum bench presses. For the 0.55-kg load, a 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed no significant effect of time × group interaction (p = 0.22), as well as no significant time (p = 0.22) or group (p = 0.72) effects. In contrast, for the 4-kg load, a significant time × group interaction (p = 0.004) and a significant time (p = 0.035) but not group (p = 0.77) effect were observed. Analysis of simple main effects revealed that the experimental group significantly (8.3%; p < 0.01) improved maximal throwing speed with the 4-kg load. These results support our research hypothesis and suggest that the acute effects of heavy preloading on upper-body ballistic performance might be load specific. In a practical sense, our findings suggest that the use of upper-body heavy resistance exercise before ballistic throwing movements against moderate external loads might be an efficient training strategy for improving an athlete's upper-body explosive performance.

Author Information

1School of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Croatia; and 2School of Sport and Physical Education, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Address correspondence to Goran Markovic,

© 2008 National Strength and Conditioning Association