A biomechanical model of a squat exercise performed on a device using a bar that is restricted to a linear motion was developed. Hip and knee moments were evaluated at varying foot positions. The range of motion of the exercise was limited by the knee joint angle beginning at an 80[degrees] angle (flexed) to a 179[degrees] joint angle (extended). Variations in foot placement were evaluated for differences in torque applied about the transverse axes of the user's knee and hip joints. Because the user's feet were positioned farther forward (anterior), the moment about the knee decreased whereas the moment about the hip increased. Positive moments were those that resulted in forces to flex the knee and hip joints. Positive knee moments were determined in all conditions when the knee was flexed and became negative when the knee was at or near full extension. The model always produced positive moments about the hip. Thus, foot position is a critical factor in hip and knee moments, and therefore in the muscle groups stressed, in a linear motion squat type exercise.
(C) 2002 National Strength and Conditioning Association