OBJECTIVE: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can improve neurological function when transplanted into animal models of cerebral infarct, however, it is undetermined how the BMSCs should be optimally transplanted. The aim of this study was to assess whether a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) hydrogel acts as a noninvasive, valuable scaffold in BMSC transplantation. METHODS: The mice were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Vehicle, BMSC suspension, or the BMSC-TGP construct was transplanted onto the ipsilateral intact neocortex at 7 days after the insult. Neurological symptoms were assessed. The fate of the transplanted BMSC was examined 8 weeks after transplantation with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: TGP hydrogel completely disappeared and provoked no inflammation in the host brain. Many transplanted cells were widely engrafted in the ipsilateral cerebrum, including the dorsal neocortex adjacent to the cerebral infarct in the BMSC-TGP construct—treated mice. Their number was significantly larger than in the BMSC-treated mice. The majority were positive for both NeuN and MAP2 and morphologically simulated the neurons. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that surgical transplantation of tissue-engineered BMSCs onto the intact neocortex enhances the engraftment of donor cells around the cerebral infarct. TGP hydrogel can be a promising candidate for valuable scaffolds in BMSC transplantation for central nervous system disorders because of its unique biochemical properties.