Clinical Studies: TUMOR
Depression in Relation to Survival among Neurosurgical Patients with a Primary Brain Tumor: A 5-year Follow-up Study
Mainio, Arja M.D.; Hakko, Helinä Ph.D.; Timonen, Markku M.D.; Niemelä, Asko M.D.; Koivukangas, John M.D., Ph.D.; Räsänen, Pirkko M.D., Ph.D.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Oulu, and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland (Mainio, Hakko, Niemelä, Räsänen)
Department of Psychiatry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland (Timonen)
Department of Neurosurgery, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland (Koivukangas)
Reprint requests: Arja Mainio, M.D.,Department of Psychiatry, Oulu University Hospital, Box 26, 90029 OYS, Oulu, Finland. Email: email@example.com
Received, May 11, 2004.
Accepted, January 6, 2005.
OBJECTIVE: The adverse impact of depression in relation to survival among cancer patients is currently a subject of great interest in research. In a 5-year follow-up study, we investigated the association of depression with survival of patients with a primary brain tumor.
METHODS: The study population consisted of 75 patients with a solitary primary brain tumor treated surgically at the Oulu Clinic for Neurosurgery, Oulu University Hospital, in Northern Finland. The patients were interviewed during admission to the hospital for the tumor surgery. Assessment of depression was made using the Beck Depression Inventory and the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index. Information on all deaths within 60 months after tumor operation was collected from the Cause of Death Register, provided by Statistics Finland.
RESULTS: The patients with a high-grade glioma had a survival time of 22.5 months (standard deviation, 21.4 mo), whereas the corresponding time was 50.2 months (standard deviation, 19.9 mo) for patients with a low-grade glioma and 58.2 months (standard deviation, 9.4 mo) for the patients with a histologically benign tumor (P < 0.001, difference between groups, Kruskal-Wallis test). In the subgroup of patients with low-grade gliomas, depressive patients had a significantly shorter survival time compared with nondepressive subjects (P = 0.031, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis). A corresponding difference was not found in patients with high-grade gliomas or benign tumors. Tumor location in one hemisphere compared with bilateral location and wider extent of tumor surgery was associated with better survival in patients with low-grade gliomas and benign tumors but not in patients with high-grade gliomas.
CONCLUSION: Preoperative depression seemed to be a significant prognostic factor for worse survival in low-grade glioma patients. In clinical practice, an evaluation of depression among brain tumor patients by structured and standardized diagnostic methods is needed to distinguish the patients whose depression actually needs treatment. The effective treatment of clinical depression among brain tumor patients and the impact of treatment on the patients’ chances of survival should be a focus of future research.
Recently, in this journal, Litofsky et al. (26) reported depression to be a common complication and predictor for shorter survival among patients with high-grade glioma. In that study, both those patients whose depression was diagnosed by physician according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV criteria and those who self-reported their depression had significantly shorter survival (34 wk) compared with nondepressed patients (41 wk). Treatment of depression with antidepressants was not related to the length survival of the depressive patients (26).
Depression is a common psychiatric disorder in patients with any type of cancer, and as many as one-quarter of cancer patients may be severely depressed (4, 44). Furthermore, a neoplasm in the central nervous system is considered to be a special risk factor for developing depression (44). In different types of samples of patients with a primary brain tumor, the prevalence of depressive symptoms varies from 15% to 38% (2, 26, 36, 39, 52). The great prevalence of depression among brain tumor patients is easy to understand because the biological roots of depression are related to dysfunction in neurotransmitter metabolism such as serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain (32, 41).
The brain tumor, being an expansive process, is both a progressive disease (51) and one that causes focal cerebral dysfunction, depending on the site of lesion (43). However, the level of depression among neurosurgical patients with a brain tumor was not shown to differ from that observed in patients with elective lumbar spinal surgery (39).
Several biopsychosocial risk factors are suggested to be related to increased mortality among brain tumor patients. Lutterbach et al. (27) reported that predictors for better survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme were: age (<50 yr), good clinical condition (Karnofsky Performance Scale status >70), and tumor location only in the hemispheres versus those with central tumor location. In patients with low-grade astrocytoma (34), good prognosis was associated with young age, female sex, and good success of tumor extirpation, whereas cognitive impairment and tumor involvement of two or more lobes were risk factors for shorter survival. In a population-based study, the risk of death among patients with malignant histological features of the tumor (glioblastoma, astrocytoma, or glioma) was six to eight times more than among those with benign neuromas or meningiomas (25). However, the effect of depression on cancer mortality was not investigated in any of these studies.
The impact of depression or depressive mood on cancer survival thus far has not yet been clarified sufficiently (45, 46); in particular, studies on patients with brain tumor are mainly lacking. In this study, we examined a putative association of depression to the survival after removal of tumor. Our study population included patients with gliomas, as did the study by Litofsky et al. (26), but also patients with other types of brain tumors. We were able to follow the length of survival for more than 60 months after surgery and also to control for sociodemographic factors as well as previous patient history of depression and tumor characteristics.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
The original study population consisted of 101 patients with a solitary primary brain tumor treated surgically at the Oulu Clinic for Neurosurgery, Oulu University Hospital, Northern Finland, between February 1990 and March 1992 (28). From an epidemiological point of view, the cohort was a comprehensive and unselected sample of the population because the Oulu Clinic for Neurosurgery performs all resections of brain tumors in its catchment area. Geographically, this area covers approximately 49% of Finland. Written informed consent was obtained from all the participants, and the Ethics Committee of the Oulu University Hospital approved the study protocol.
The complete database of depressive status was available for 75 patients. Those who were excluded (n = 26) had tumor-induced motor aphasia, were confused, or their level of consciousness was reduced because of raised intracranial pressure. The final database consisted of 29 men and 46 women. The mean age before operation was 48.3 years (standard deviation [SD], 11.4 yr) for men and 45.9 years (SD, 11.9 yr) for women (P = 0.197; Z = −1.290, Mann-Whitney U test). Sociodemographic information was collected during admission to hospital for the tumor surgery; the patients were interviewed by a trained physician.
The radiological diagnosis of the brain tumor was carried out by computed tomographic (CT) scanning or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The histological features of the tumor were defined according to World Health Organization classification (22): Grade I–II (low-grade) gliomas (n = 16), Grade III–IV (high-grade) gliomas (n = 15), meningiomas (n = 22), pituitary adenomas (n = 6), acoustic neuromas (n = 12), and other solitary tumors (n = 4).
The brain tumor of the patient was specified as being located in the left or the right hemisphere or bilaterally. The anatomic classification of the brain developed by Matsui et al. (29) was used to define the location of various brain structures. The tumors were divided into those located in the left or right hemisphere as well as anteriorly or posteriorly if they reached the supratentorial space, as described by Salo et al. (42). The distance of the tumor from the apex of the frontal lobe was determined by calculating, from each CT or MRI slice, the ratio of the distance between the anterior part of the tumor and the apex of the frontal lobe to the anteroposterior diameter of the entire brain. The mean of these percentages was used to describe the distance from the apex of the frontal lobe to the tumor (29). Because central tumor location and tumor expansion in both hemispheres have been identified as risk factors for shorter survival (27, 34), we categorized the tumors as 1) bilateral tumors if they were located in central regions or reached the two hemispheres (n = 11; 14.7%), and 2) hemispheric tumors (n = 64; 85.3%) if they were located in only the left or right hemisphere.
The volume of each tumor was determined manually from the CT or MRI scan by the same method as that of Salo et al. (42). In this study, the tumors were divided in two size classes according to the volume of the tumor: 1) tumors with volume ≤25 ml (n = 40; 53.3%), and 2) tumors with volume >25 ml (n = 35; 46.7%).
Marital status of the patient was determined before surgery and patients were classified as being married (n = 60; 80%) or not married (n = 15; 20.0%). The group of patients who were not married included six unmarried, three divorced, and six widowed patients.
Twenty-nine patients (38.7%) were considered to be employed; the remaining 46 patients (61.3%) were considered to be unemployed, regardless of whether they had worked full-time or part-time. The unemployed group included 3 unemployed patients, 23 patients on medical leave, 4 students, and 16 pensioners.
Definition of Depression
Preoperative depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before the patients were aware of the histological diagnosis of the tumor. The BDI is a widely used screening instrument for depressive symptoms, and it is reported to correspond to diagnostic criteria for depression found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (3). The BDI has been used in evaluating depressive symptoms among patients with a primary brain tumor (19, 36). According to the BDI scale, depression is present if the BDI scores are 10 or more; the same classification was used in our study.
The patients also were asked to report whether they had ever experienced depressive periods during their lifetime. This previous depression was evaluated by using the depression scale of the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index (CCEI) (1). The CCEI, earlier called the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire, is a clinical self-rating diagnostic scale that differentiates healthy patients and psychoneurotic patients at a statistically significant level (1, 5). The CCEI has been used in studies on patients with psychiatric (7) or somatic (13) diseases, and it also has been validated for the Finnish population (18).
The patients completed both depression questionnaires during admission for the surgical operation of the brain tumor, within 1 to 5 days before the operation. A trained psychologist administered both the BDI and the CCEI questionnaire before the patients knew the level of malignancy of the tumor.
Three study groups were formed based on the information on current and previous depression of the patients. The first group included patients who had been experiencing depression immediately before surgery. The second group covered those patients who had experienced depression previously but were not depressive immediately before the surgery. The last group consisted of patients without any current or past history of depression. This categorization was chosen because in the literature, depression is reported to be a recurrent disorder (11, 21). Therefore, current depression in the patients can be considered to have been induced by the tumor.
Assessment of Survival
The survival status of each patient was calculated from the date of surgery to the time of death or to the end of the follow-up after 60 months. The information on the 5-year survival (gross survival) was obtained from the Cause of Death Register, provided by Statistics Finland.
Group differences in continuous variables were tested with the Mann-Whitney U test (two independent groups) and Kruskal-Wallis test (three independent groups), and categorical variables were tested with the χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test were used to assess the statistical significance of difference in the length of survival between the subgroups of depression (no depression, previous depression, current depression). Survival curves in patients with Grade III–IV glioma and Grade I–II glioma were estimated separately for the subgroups of the depression after adjustment for patient age, sex, and employment status. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software, version 10 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL).
Malignant tumors were statistically significantly associated with shorter survival: the patients with a malignant glioma (Grade III–IV) had a survival time of 22.5 months (SD, 21.4 mo), whereas the corresponding time for patients with Grade I–II glioma was 50.2 months (SD, 19.9 mo) and for patients with a histologically benign tumor was 58.2 months (SD, 9.4 mo; P < 0.001, difference between groups, Kruskal-Wallis test).
Table 1 shows the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the patients with a primary brain tumor according to their survival status in different histological subgroups. In the patients with a Grade I–II glioma or a benign tumor, the location of tumor and extent of surgery were significantly associated with survival time. A corresponding association was not found in the patients with a Grade III–IV glioma.
As shown in Table 2, the proportion of patients alive in the group with Grade III–IV gliomas was 20%, whereas the corresponding proportion was 68.7% among the patients with Grade I–II gliomas and 95.4% among the rest of the patients (P < 0.001, χ2 test; df = 2).
The association of current depression with decreased survival time was most prevalent among patients with a low-grade glioma. In pairwise comparisons, a statistically significant difference in survival distributions was found in the low-grade glioma group between patients with current depression compared with those without any history of depression (P = 0.031, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis). Figure 1 demonstrates the survival estimates among patients with a high-grade glioma and a low-grade glioma after adjustment for patient age, sex, and employment status.
The prevalence of current depression in different treatment groups varied from 2.5% to 15.4%. The prevalence was lowest in the patients with total extirpation of the tumor (n = 40) and the highest among the patients with subtotal resection and those whose tumors were inoperable (n = 35). Furthermore, the proportion of currently depressive patients was 6.5% in the radiotherapy group (n = 31) and 8.6% among those who did not receive radiotherapy (n = 44). The prevalence of depression did not differ statistically significantly according to treatment groups.
In recent years, increased attention has been focused on pretreatment factors as predictors for survival among brain tumor patients (25, 27). Similarly, the concurrence of depression and cancer has gained a great deal of interest in psychiatric research (8, 15, 20, 26, 46).
Adverse Impact of Depression on Survival
In this study, we were able to establish that current, preoperative depression, assessed soon after brain tumor diagnosis, was a significant predictor for shorter survival among patients with a low-grade glioma. Our finding is in line with the study of Litofsky et al. (26) in which depression was associated with shorter survival among high-grade glioma patients; however, in our study, the follow-up was 10 times longer. Furthermore, what is novel is that our study highlights the importance of current but not previous depression on the length of survival after brain tumor operation.
It is known that there is concurrence between cancer and depression and that the prevalence of depression in cancer patients increases with disease severity and symptoms (8). With regard to the role of depression as a predisposing factor for cancer, earlier findings are contradictory to some extent (46). Instead, there is stronger evidence that depression predicts cancer progression and mortality, as reviewed by Spiegel and Giese-Davis (46). The pathophysiology behind the association between cancer and depression is most probably multifactorial (20). It has been proposed that depression is not merely a purely psychological reaction to the cancer, but that the association between these disorders has biochemical roots (15, 46). For example, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, changes in cytokine levels in brain, and disturbed fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism have been suggested as explanations for the association between depression and cancer (8, 15, 46). These theories also may explain our findings, but unfortunately, our data did not include measurement of the biochemical markers mentioned above.
In general, the finding of an association between cancer and depression may be nonspecific. An increased risk of depression also has been noted in connection with many other physical diseases as well. There may also be other intervening factors besides depression explaining the shorter survival of depressive brain tumor patients.
Association of Depression and Brain Tumor
Current depressive symptoms before tumor operation or previous patient depression were not directly related to malignancy of the brain tumor in this study sample. It is understandable that awareness of malignancy was not associated with depression because the patients did not know at the measurement point whether their tumor was benign or malignant by histological evaluation. Serotonin and norepinephrine as well as dysfunction in interactions between these systems have fundamental roles in the cause of depression (32, 41). Furthermore, changes in these neurotransmitters and in neurotransmitter metabolite concentrations, reuptake sites, and receptors support the hypothesis of serotonergic and noradrenergic neuronal dysfunction in depression patients. There is evidence of underactivation of serotonergic function and complex dysregulation of noradrenergic function (32, 41).
In addition, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors have been found in human glioma cells, and serotonin has been found to positively modulate glioma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro (30). It has been suggested that serotonin has an important role in the control of the biological properties of human glioma cells, and the serotonergic system in the brain area surrounding tumor may change (30, 33). In addition, patients with lesions in the ventral frontal cortex or lesions in the temporoparietal cortex have been reported to have statistically significantly worse mood states after surgery than those with lesions in other regions of the brain (17). It is suggested that lesions in cortical interconnection with limbic structures are important for the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression in brain tumor patients (51). Psychiatric symptoms most probably originate from dysregulation in the frontal and/or limbic release or disinhibition system in which serotonin and norepinephrine may play a significant role (24). Thus, we speculate that a brain tumor, per se, may have a direct pathophysiological effect on the brain because of the dysfunction in the serotonergic system caused by the glioma and thus may predispose a person to depression. The literature about psychiatric disorders in patients with a primary brain tumor has varied concerning the conceptualization and measurement of depression (36). Also, it is not yet known whether mood symptoms such as depression are the result of the direct effects of the tumor or whether they are psychological reactions in adapting to the diagnosis of severe disease (39).
Psychological Coping and Cancer Survival
From a psychological perspective, there is a popular belief that a depressive person with cancer may concede and surrender his life to cancer. In the literature, the association between psychological coping factors and cancer survival is to some extent inconsistent: fighting spirit (12, 38, 49) has been suggested to be associated with better survival, whereas helplessness/hopelessness (12, 31) has been suggested to be linked with a poorer chance of cancer survival. Petticrew et al. (37) in their systematic review focused on the fact that no consistent association exists between different psychological coping styles and cancer survival. However, there is evidence that supportive/expressive or cognitive-behavioral therapy for depressive cancer patients has led to normalized cortisol levels and increased survival time of these patients (6, 50).
Other Predisposing Factors for Survival
It is self-evident that the main predictor for survival among patients with a primary brain tumor is the malignancy of the tumor, as found previously (25). In our study, the length of survival was more than two times higher among the patients with a benign tumor compared with those with a malignant tumor. We found that prognostic factors for better survival were tumor location in one hemisphere compared with bilaterality of tumor and wider extent of surgery in patients with low-grade gliomas and benign tumors. These findings earlier have been reported among astrocytoma and glioblastoma patients (16, 25, 34).
Limitations of Our Study
A small number of cases in different histological groups was a limitation of our study, and thus our findings are preliminary. Another limitation was that in our database, the information on tumor location as well as dichotomized information on tumor volume was rough. From a psychiatric perspective, a major deficit in this database was that psychiatric diagnosis by any structured diagnostic interview was not available in this study. Also, any information of lifetime therapeutic interventions or psychological treatments was lacking. Thus, unfortunately no adjustment for treatment factors or later depression could be performed.
Nevertheless, the adaptive reaction of a patient is to be shocked or saddened when confronted with a serious disease. In our opinion, regardless of tumor malignancy, all the patients and their families would benefit from guidance concerning normal human psychological reactions and thus from a supportive intervention. If clinical depression is evident in the brain tumor patient, it is essential to treat it. The evidence-based treatment of depression consists of medical care, such as administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (14, 40, 48). Among psychosocial therapies, cognitive psychotherapy is the treatment of choice (10, 35). Although Litofsky et al. (26) found no association with depression treatment and survival, it was reported earlier that adequate treatment improves the prognosis of disease (23) and also the patient’s quality of life (9, 47).
More research is needed to evaluate depression among brain tumor patients by structured and standardized diagnostic methods to distinguish the patients whose depression actually needs treatment. It is also essential to study the effective treatment of clinical depression among brain tumor patients and the impact of treatment on the patients’ chances of survival.
1. Alderman KJ, Mackay CJ, Lucas EG, Spry WB, Bell B: Factor analysis and reliability studies of Crown-Crisp Experiential Index (CCEI). Br J Med Psychol
2. Anderson SI, Taylor R, Whittle IR: Mood disorders in patients after treatment for primary intracranial tumours. Br J Neurosurg
3. Beck AT, Steer RA, Garbin MG: Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clin Psychol Rev
4. Bottomley A: Depression in cancer patients: A literature review. Eur J Cancer Care
5. Crown S, Crisp AH: A short clinical self-rating scale for psychoneurotic patients: The Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ). Br J Psychiatry
6. Cruess DG, Antoni MH, McGregor BA, Kilbourn KM, Boyers AE, Alferi SM, Carver CS, Kumar M: Cognitive-behavioral stress management reduces serum cortisol by enhancing benefit finding among women being treated for early stage breast cancer. Psychosom Med
7. Elliott SA, Leverton TJ, Sanjack M, Turner H, Cowmeadow P, Hopkins J, Bushnell D: Promoting mental health after childbirth: A controlled trial of primary prevention of postnatal depression. Br J Clin Psychol
8. Evans DL, Charney DS: Mood disorders and medical illness: A major public health problem. Biol Psychiatry
9. Fawzy FI, Fawzy NW, Hyun CS, Elashoff R, Guthrie D, Fahey JL, Morton DL: Malignant melanoma: Effects of an early structured psychiatric intervention, coping, and affective state on recurrence and survival 6 years later. Arch Gen Psychiatry
10. Gloaguen V, Cottraux J, Cucherat M, Blackburn IM: A meta-analysis of the effects of cognitive therapy in depressed patients. J Affect Disord
11. Gold PW, Goodwin FK, Chrousos GP: Clinical and biochemical manifestations of depression: Relation to neurobiology of stress. N Engl J Med
12. Greer S, Morris T, Pettingale K: Psychological response to breast cancer: Effect on outcome. Lancet
13. Haines A, Cooper J, Meade TW: Psychological characteristics and fatal ischemic heart disease. Heart
14. Hirschfeld RM: Efficacy of SSRIs and newer antidepressants in severe depression: Comparison with TCAs. J Clin Psychiatry
15. Horrobin DF, Bennett CN: Depression and bipolar disorder: Relationships to impaired fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism and to diabetes, cardiovascular disease, immunological abnormalities, cancer, ageing and osteoporosis. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids
16. Hulshof MC, Koot RW, Schimmel EC, Dekker F, Bosch DA, Gonzàlez DG: Prognostic factors in glioblastoma multiforme. Strahlenther Onkol
17. Irle E, Peper M, Wowra B, Kunze S: Mood changes after surgery for tumors of the cerebral cortex. Arch Neurol
18. Joukamaa M: Crown-Crisp experiential index, a useful tool for measuring neurotic psychopathology. Nord J Psychiatry
19. Kaplan CP, Miner ME: Relationships: Importance for patients with cerebral tumours. Brain Inj
20. Katon WJ: Clinical and health services relationships between major depression, depressive symptoms, and general medical illness. Biol Psychiatry
21. Kiloh LG, Andrews G, Neilson M: The long-term outcome of depressive illness. Br J Psychiatry
22. Kleihues P, Burger PC, Scheithauer BW: Histological Typing of Tumours of the Central Nervous System: WHO Classifications
. Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1993, ed 2.
23. Levy SM, Herberman RB, Lippman M, D’Angelo T, Lee J: Immunological and psychosocial predictors of disease recurrence in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Behav Med
24. Lezak MD: Neuropsychological Assessment
. New York, Oxford University Press, 1995, ed 3.
25. Liigant A, Kulla A, Linnamägi Ü, Asser T, Kaasik AE: Survival of patients with primary CNS tumours in Estonia. Eur J Cancer
26. Litofsky NS, Farace E, Anderson F Jr, Meyers CA, Huang W, Laws ER Jr: Depression in patients with high-grade glioma: Results of the glioma outcome project. Neurosurgery
27. Lutterbach J, Sauerbrei W, Guttenberg R: Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in patients with glioblastoma. Strahlenther Onkol
28. Mainio A, Hakko H, Niemelä A, Tuurinkoski T, Koivukangas J, Räsänen P: The effect of brain tumour laterality on anxiety levels among neurosurgical patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
29. Matsui T, Kawamoto K, Iwata M, Kurent JE, Imai T, Ohsugi T, Hirano A: Anatomical and pathological study of the brain by CT scanner: Part 1—Anatomical study of normal brain. Comput Tomogr
30. Merzak A, Koochekpour S, Fillion MP, Fillion G, Pilkington GJ: Expression of serotonin receptors in human fetal astrocytes and glioma cell proliferation and migration. Brain Res Mol Brain Res
31. Molassiotis A, Van Den Akker O, Milligan D, Goldman J: Symptom distress, coping style and biological variables as predictors of survival after bone marrow transplantation. J Psychosom Res
32. Nemeroff CB: Recent advances in the neurobiology of depression. Psychopharmacol Bull
36[Suppl 2]:6–23, 2002.
33. Noda M, Yasuda S, Okada M, Higashida H, Shimada A, Iwata N, Ozaki N, Nishikawa K, Shirasawa S, Uchida M, Aoki S, Wada K: Recombinant human serotonin 5A receptors stably expressed in C6 glioma cells couple to multiple signal transduction pathways. J Neuroochem
34. North CA, North RB, Epstein J, Piantadosi S, Wharam MD: Low-grade cerebral astrocytomas survival and quality of life after radiation therapy. Cancer
35. Parker G, Roy K, Eyers K: Cognitive behavior therapy for depression? Choose horses for courses. Am J Psychiatry
36. Pelletier G, Verhoef MJ, Khatri N, Hagen N: Quality of life in brain tumor patients: The relative contributions of depression, fatigue, emotional distress, and existential issues. J Neurooncol
37. Petticrew M, Bell R, Hunter D: Influence of psychological coping on survival and recurrence in people with cancer: Systematic review. BMJ
38. Pettingale K, Morris T, Greer S, Haybittle J: Mental attitudes to cancer: An additional prognostic factor. Lancet
39. Pringle AM, Taylor R, Whittle IR: Anxiety and depression in patients with an intracranial neoplasm before and after tumour surgery. Br J Neurosurg
40. Quitkin FM, Rabkin JG, Gerald J, Davis JM, Klein DF: Validity of clinical trials of antidepressants. Am J Psychiatry
41. Ressler KJ, Nemeroff CB: Role of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems in pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders. Depress Anxiety
12[Suppl 1]:2–19, 2000.
42. Salo J, Niemelä A, Joukama M, Koivukangas J: Effect of brain tumour laterality on patients’ perceived quality of life. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
43. Scheibel RS, Meyers CA, Levin VA: Cognitive dysfunction following surgery for intracranial glioma: Influence of histopathology, lesion location, and treatment. J Neurooncol
44. Schwenk TL: Cancer and depression. Oncology
45. Spiegel D: Cancer and depression. Br J Psychiatry Suppl
46. Spiegel D, Giese-Davis J: Depression and cancer: Mechanisms and disease progression. Biol Psychiatry
47. Spiegel D, Bloom JR, Kraemer HC, Gottheil E: Effect of psychosocial treatment on survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Lancet
48. Steffens DC, Krishnan KR, Helms MJ: Are SSRIs better than TCAs? Comparison of SSRIs and TCAs: A meta-analysis. Depress Anxiety
49. Tschuschke V, Hertenstein B, Arnold R, Bunjes D, Denzinger R, Kaechele H: Associations between coping and survival time of adult leukemia patients receiving allogenic bone marrow transplantation: Results of a prospective study. J Psychosom Res
50. van der Pompe G, Duivenvoorden HJ, Antoni MH, Visser A, Heijnen CJ: Effectiveness of a short-term group psychotherapy program on endocrine and immune function in breast cancer patients: An exploratory study. J Psychosom Res
51. Weitzner MA: Psychosocial and neuropsychiatric aspects of patients with primary brain tumors. Cancer Invest
52. Wellisch DK, Kaleita TA, Freeman D, Cloughesy T, Goldman J: Predicting major depression in brain tumor patients. Psychooncology
The authors address a relevant area of investigation that has received little attention in the literature. In a 5-year follow-up study involving brain tumor patients, they reported that depression at the time of diagnosis but before surgical intervention was a significant prognostic factor for worse survival among 16 patients with low-grade gliomas. Depression did not predict survival in either high-grade glioma or benign tumor patients. Tumors restricted to one hemisphere and with a greater extent of surgical resection were associated with increased survival among patients with low-grade gliomas and benign tumors. However, the validity of the comparisons according to tumor location was limited by the fact that 15 of the 16 patients had tumors in one hemisphere.
As the authors acknowledged, the findings are preliminary given several limitations to the study, the most significant being the small number of patients available to perform group comparisons. The absence of more detailed information regarding tumor location within each hemisphere makes it unclear whether most patients had tumors involving the frontal lobes. As noted by the authors, lesions that disrupt frontal-limbic connectivity can be associated with the development of psychiatric symptoms. The presence of cognitive dysfunction and degree of insight, seizures, and anti-epileptic or other pharmacological treatments (e.g., corticosteroids) may also have affected the mood of the patients studied. Finally, it is unclear why depression would affect survival only in low-grade glioma patients. Nevertheless, this study represents an initial step in trying to understand the possible role of mood in the survival of brain tumor patients. As depression can be treated with psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions, its contribution to brain tumor patients’ survival warrants further investigation. Future prospective studies that identify relevant contributing variables and assess specific neurotransmitters would make a significant contribution to our understanding of the role of depression in both survival and quality of life of brain tumor patients, and would assist in the implementation of guidelines for early treatment interventions.
Denise D. Correa
Philip H. Gutin
New York, New York
In this study, the authors bring to our attention an unfortunate association between primary brain tumors and depression, both past and present. Moreover, they suggest that the presence of depression, at least in the subgroup of patients with a low-grade glioma, is likely to result in a shorter lifespan.
The authors proactively assess the depressive symptoms of brain tumor patients at presentation using the Beck Depression Inventory. The assessment of past depressive episodes is unfortunately not as well-documented and is, by necessity, retrospective in nature. Another weakness of the study is in the limited number of patients, so that by the end, the authors’ hypothesis could not be confirmed. What must be recognized, however, is the deleterious effect that the depression has on the quality of life of brain tumor patients and therefore, the need to routinely incorporate a detailed assessment of the cognitive and mood dysfunctions in the initial evaluation of all brain tumor patients, so that such dysfunctions are properly diagnosed and managed.
This informative study of depression in 75 surgically-treated brain tumor patients is valuable because of several favorable design features usually not present in similar studies. Patients were followed up for a 5-year duration and baseline self-report measures were obtained preoperatively within 1 to 5 days of surgery, thereby minimizing the interference from the emotional aspects of the initial formal diagnosis. Additionally, a relatively large number of patients were studied and the study population was homogeneous because the institutional study site covers half of Finland.
The authors reported a correlation between preoperative depressive symptoms and shorter survival in adult patients being treated for low grade gliomas, a finding deserving further scientific inquiry and verification. Interestingly, this correlation was not observed with patients being treated for either high-grade gliomas or benign tumors, which necessitates cautious interpretation and generalization of these results. The remaining findings in low-grade gliomas and benign tumors have been previously reported, including increased survival with tumors limited to one cerebral hemisphere or with greater extent of resection.
Psychocognitive studies of this type must account for tumor location because tumors involving the frontal lobe region can significantly impact upon behavior and personality. According to The Mental Status Examination in Neurology (5), lesions involving the dorsolateral convexities tend to produce apathy, reduced drive, depressed mentation, and impaired planning, all of which are changes sometimes misconstrued as depression. Although the authors calculated the distance of the tumor from the apex of the frontal lobe using computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging scans, this information was unfortunately not included in the analysis or discussion of the results.
Both self-reported and clinician-rated measures are commonly used to assess depression, each having benefits and drawbacks. Self-report measures, although they are not diagnostic tools, enable clinicians to screen a large number of patients and focus their attention on those who are more likely to be depressed. The authors elected to use the Beck Depression Inventory (1), although the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, (6) and the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen for Medical Patients (2) are self-report depression questionnaires that have been specifically designed to avoid the confounding influence of somatic symptoms, which is commonly a critical variable with a medically ill populations.
A significant limitation of all the self-report measures is the difficulty in converting a symptom severity rating to a clinical diagnosis. Although various cutoff scores exist, pinpointing the exact cutoff that optimizes the classification of depression while minimizing false positives and false negatives can be somewhat arbitrary. In this study, a cutoff score of 10 was used, which, according to the manual represents minimal depression (10–15), as compared to mild to moderate depression (16–19), moderate to severe depression (20–29), or severe depression (30–63). It is therefore difficult to interpret the findings in terms of the severity of depressive symptoms because of possible confounding influences from somatic complaints, as well as the lack of clarity on the severity of the symptoms. Because of these drawbacks in interpretation, many researchers elect to use clinician-rated diagnostic interviews, as the authors have appropriately recommended for future studies. The most commonly used are the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (3) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (4). These diagnostic interviews, while informative, are much more time consuming than either an unstructured clinical interview or a brief screening questionnaire.
One of the stronger aspects of this article is its detailed inquiry into the pathophysiology behind the association between cancer and depression, providing an excellent framework for future scientific studies by hypothesizing the possible dysregulation of the serotonergic system by gliomas. The authors conclude by making the appropriate recommendation for further research to include a treatment arm to provide interventions such as psychopharmacologic medications and psychotherapy or counseling to address the symptoms of depression, along with biochemical markers and multiple assessment points to better understand the trajectory of these symptoms across time and treatment.
Jeffrey N. Bruce
New York, New York
1. Beck AT and Steer RA: Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory
. San Antonio, TX, Psychological Corporation, 1993.
2. Beck AT and Steer RA: Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen for Medical Patients
. San Antonio, TX, Psychological Corporation, 2000.
3. Robins LN, Helzer JE, Croughan JL, Ratcliff KS: National Institute of Mental Health diagnostic interview schedule: Its history, characteristics, and validity. Arch Gen Psychiatry
4. Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, Gibbon M, First MB: User’s guide for the structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R: SCID
. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1990.
5. Strub RL and Black FW: The Mental Status Examination in Neurology- 3rd edition
. F.A. Davis Company: Philadelphia, 1985.
6. Zigmond AS and Snaith RP: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand
67, 361–70, 1983.
This article has been cited 24 time(s).
Journal of Psychosocial OncologyInsomnia Among Brain Tumor Patients: A Population-Based Prospective Study of Tumor Patients in Northern FinlandJournal of Psychosocial Oncology
Supportive Care in CancerDevelopment of anxiety and depression in patients with benign intracranial meningiomas: a prospective long-term studySupportive Care in Cancer
Health and Quality of Life OutcomesThe benefits of psychosocial interventions for cancer patients undergoing radiotherapyHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsPharmacological treatment of depression in patients with a primary brain tumourCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Journal of Psychosomatic ResearchQuality of life among patients with a brain tumor and their carersJournal of Psychosomatic Research
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical NeuroscienceDecreased quality of life and depression as predictors for shorter survival among patients with low-grade gliomas: a follow-up from 1990 to 2003European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Surgical NeurologyAssociation of preoperative depression and survival after resection of malignant brain astrocytomaSurgical Neurology
Journal of Rehabilitation Research and DevelopmentDirected rehabilitation reduces pain and depression while increasing independence and satisfaction with life for patients with paraplegia due to epidural metastatic spinal cord compressionJournal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Predictors of Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Intracranial Neoplasms
Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 20(4):
Journal of NeurosurgeryState and trait anxiety and depression in patients with primary brain tumors before and after surgery: 1-year longitudinal studyJournal of Neurosurgery
CancerPsychiatric disorders in advanced cancerCancer
Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics
Metabonomic Characterization of The Low-grade Human Astrocytomas and Meningiomas Using Magic-angle Spinning H-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Principal Component Analysis
Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics, 35():
Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsPharmacological treatment of depression in patients with a primary brain tumourCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Journal of NeurosurgeryLow triiodothyronine syndrome as a predictor of poor outcomes in patients undergoing brain tumor surgery: a pilot study Clinical articleJournal of Neurosurgery
Surgical Oncology Clinics of North AmericaMultidisciplinary Care of Patients with Brain TumorsSurgical Oncology Clinics of North America
Psycho-OncologyScreening for psychological distress in neurosurgical brain tumor patients using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2Psycho-Oncology
Neuro-OncologyEvaluation and characterization of generalized anxiety and depression in patients with primary brain tumorsNeuro-Oncology
Journal of Neuro-OncologyThe relationships between depression and brain tumorsJournal of Neuro-Oncology
Psycho-OncologieAntidepressants in oncology: specificity's and particularitiesPsycho-Oncologie
Supportive Care in CancerStress and long-term survivors of brain cancerSupportive Care in Cancer
Neuro-OncologyQuality of life in adults with brain tumors: Current knowledge and future directionsNeuro-Oncology
Acta NeurochirurgicaSeason of tumor surgery in relation to deaths among brain tumor patients: does sunlight and month of surgery play a role in brain tumor deaths?Acta Neurochirurgica
Journal of Vascular SurgeryDepression is associated with worse patency and recurrent leg symptoms after lower extremity revascularizationJournal of Vascular Surgery
Neurological SciencesQuality of life and seizure control in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy treated with levetiracetam monotherapy: preliminary data of an open-label studyNeurological Sciences
Depression; Low-grade gliomas; Primary brain tumor; Prognostic factors; Survival
Figure. Left, Vladim...Image Tools
Copyright © by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons
What does "Remember me" mean?
By checking this box, you'll stay logged in until you logout. You'll get easier access to your articles, collections,
media, and all your other content, even if you close your browser or shut down your
To protect your most sensitive data and activities (like changing your password),
we'll ask you to re-enter your password when you access these services.
What if I'm on a computer that I share with others?
If you're using a public computer or you share this computer with others, we recommend
that you uncheck the "Remember me" box.
Highlight selected keywords in the article text.
Data is temporarily unavailable. Please try again soon.
Readers Of this Article Also Read