Vittorio Marchi was an Italian neuroscientist who lived during the second half of the 19th century. He is generally remembered for developing a novel staining method to trace the degeneration of nervous fibers in lesions of the central nervous system. This osmium-based method was used worldwide for approximately a century and continues to be cited in modern textbooks. Despite several important original scientific contributions, Marchi was never awarded a university chair. Discouraged, he left to practice neurology in a rural area but continued to write outstanding articles, and in 1897, he became a pioneer of meningioma surgery. Today, he is remembered only in specialized contexts. We hope this article can provide the recognition that Marchi deserves.