Carlo Giacomini (1840-1898) was a prominent Italian anatomist, neuroscientist, and professor at the University of Turin. Early in his career, he conducted clinical investigations with the physiologist Angelo Mosso (1846-1910) that culminated in the first recording of brain pulsations in a human subject. Anatomic features named after him include the limbus Giacomini, Giacomini vertebrae, and the vein of Giacomini. Pushing anatomy research to reconsider anthropological studies of the late 19th century, Giacomini strongly refuted the theory connecting criminality to atavistic morphological characteristics. A tireless scientist, he was the first to describe the os odontoideum in 1886 and to suggest that the presence of an incompetent odontoid process may alter the motion of craniovertebral junction, anticipating the concept of spinal instability. In this essay, we highlight the life and scientific contributions of Carlo Giacomini, with emphasis on his contributions to neuroscience.