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doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182672ae5
Research-Human-Clinical Studies

Impact of Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome After Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States

Rincon, Fred MD, MSc*,‡; Ghosh, Sayantani MBBS; Dey, Saugat MBBS; Maltenfort, Mitchell PhD§; Vibbert, Matthew MD*,‡; Urtecho, Jacqueline MD*,‡; McBride, William MD*,¶; Moussouttas, Michael MD*,¶; Bell, Rodney MD*,‡,¶; Ratliff, John K. MD||; Jallo, Jack MD, PhD

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BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability, morbidity, and mortality. The effect of the acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury (ARDS/ALI) on in-hospital mortality after TBI remains controversial.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiology of ARDS/ALI, the prevalence of risk factors, and impact on in-hospital mortality after TBI in the United States.

METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of admissions of adult patients >18 years with a diagnosis of TBI and ARDS/ALI from 1988 to 2008 identified through the Nationwide Inpatient Sample.

RESULTS: During the 20-year study period, the prevalence of ARDS/ALI increased from 2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1%–2.4%) in 1988 to 22% (95% CI, 21%–22%) in 2008 (P < .001). ARDS/ALI was more common in younger age; males; white race; later year of admission; in conjunction with comorbidities such as congestive heart failure, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic renal and liver failure, sepsis, multiorgan dysfunction; and nonrural, medium/large hospitals, located in the Midwest, South, and West continental US location. Mortality after TBI decreased from 13% (95% CI, 12%–14%) in 1988 to 9% (95% CI, 9%–10%) in 2008 (P < .001). ARDS/ALI-related mortality after TBI decreased from 33% (95% CI, 33%–34%) in 1988 to 28% (95% CI, 28%–29%) in 2008 (P < .001). Predictors of in-hospital mortality after TBI were older age, male sex, white race, cancer, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, chronic liver disease, congestive heart failure, ARDS/ALI, and organ dysfunctions.

CONCLUSION: Our analysis demonstrates that ARDS/ALI is common after TBI. Despite an overall reduction of in-hospital mortality, ARDS/ALI carries a higher risk of in-hospital death after TBI.

ABBREVIATIONS: AECC, American-European Consensus Conference

ALI, acute lung injury

ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome

CXR, chest x-ray

GEE, generalized estimated equation

ICD-9-CM, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification

NIS, Nationwide Inpatient Sample

PAOP, pulmonary artery occlusion pressures

PPV, positive predictive value

TBI, traumatic brain injury

Copyright © by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons


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