BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage from cerebral dural arteriovenous fistulae (dAVF) is a considerable source of neurological morbidity and even mortality.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the natural history of cerebral dAVF.
METHODS: We reviewed our own cohort of 70 dAVF and incorporated results from the literature, synthesizing pooled hemorrhage rates and evaluating risk factors for 395 dAVF in 6 studies.
RESULTS: No hemorrhages occurred during 409 lesion-years of follow-up of Borden type I dAVF; however, cortical venous drainage developed in 1.4%. Like type I dAVF, type II dAVF demonstrated a female predilection and were most commonly transverse-sigmoid or cavernous. Eighteen percent of type II dAVF presented with hemorrhage (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8%-36%), and the annual hemorrhage rate was 6% (95% CI: 0.1%-19%). Borden type III dAVF demonstrated a male predilection and were most commonly tentorial or petrosal. Thirty-four percent presented with hemorrhage (95% CI: 0.4%-49%), with an annual hemorrhage rate of 10% (95% CI: 4%-20%), increasing to 21% for those with venous ectasia (95% CI: 4%-66%). The hemorrhage rate decreased to 2% for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic type II or III dAVF (95% CI: 0.2%-8%), and increased to 10% for those presenting with nonhemorrhagic neurological deficits (95% CI: 0.9%-41%) and to 46% for those presenting with hemorrhage (95% CI: 11%-130%).
CONCLUSION: Venous ectasia is a significant risk factor for hemorrhage among dAVF with cortical venous drainage. In addition, those with hemorrhagic presentation, even compared with nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit presentation, as well as Borden type III dAVF compared with type II dAVF demonstrated a trend toward greater hemorrhage rates.
ABBREVIATIONS: AVM, arteriovenous malformation
CI, confidence interval
CVD, cortical venous drainage
dAVF, dural arteriovenous fistula
NHND, nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit