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Neurologic Findings of Craniovertebral Junction Disease

Benglis, David MD; Levi, Allan D. MD, PhD

doi: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000365801.87711.60

IN THIS REVIEW, we explain the origins of central cord syndrome and Bell's cruciate paralysis and the intricate detail of neural pathways located in this region and their influence on motor and sensory function. Although lesion studies and tract tracing studies on primates over the past 50 years refute the theory of a somatotopically organized corticospinal tract, this concept continues to pervade many neuroanatomic texts. We categorized the various pathologies of the craniovertebral junction and their unique neurologic presentations. New developments in the fields of neuroscience of spinal tract lesioning are also discussed.

Author Information

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida

Reprint requests: Allan D. Levi, MD, PhD, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami, Lois Pope Life Center, 1095 NW 14th Terrace D4-6, Miami, FL 33136. E-mail:

Received, November 3, 2008.

Accepted, November 28, 2009.

Copyright © by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons