WE TAKE OUR present concepts of nerve repair for granted. In fact, the pioneers who established these principles traveled a road filled with erroneous dogma, bad advice, and misleading data. The lessons learned from a review of the history of peripheral nerve surgery are applicable to all neurosurgical disciplines. In honor of Dr. David Kline's distinguished career, we will review 3 aspects of the history of peripheral nerve surgery: Can an injured nerve regain function? How do peripheral nerves regenerate? When should a neuroma in continuity be resected?