FEMALE SEX STEROIDS may play a role in the proliferation of meningiomas. We investigated the progesterone receptor (PgR) immunoreactivities and the Ki-67 labeling indices in the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of meningiomas from 39 patients. After autoclave pretreatment of the sections (which were immersed in a citrate buffer), the sections were incubated with the monoclonal antibody for the PgR and the MIB-1 monoclonal antibody for the Ki-67 antigen. In the meningiomas studied, the immunoreactivity for the PgR was moderately to strongly positive in 51%, weakly positive in 21%, and negative in 28%. The nuclear staining for the PgR was clear, and no tumors were positive for the estrogen receptor. The Ki-67 labeling indices of the PgR-positive meningiomas (mean ± standard deviation, 2.35 ± 2.12%) were significantly lower than those of the PgR-negative meningiomas (6.53 ± 4.83%) (P < 0.05). Two meningiomas that had recurred more than once showed high Ki-67 labeling indices and negative immunostaining for the PgR. These findings indicate that the PgR status may be closely related to the growth potentials of the meningiomas. Our results confirm that the immunodetection of the PgR and the Ki-67 antigen on the paraffin sections of meningiomas provides a practical tool for estimating the biological behavior of the meningiomas.