CONTROLLED DRUG RELEASE in the central nervous system through an implantable polymeric vector has been developed in recent years. For this purpose, different polymeric devices composed primarily of synthetic biocompatible and biodegradable polymers have been investigated. The first polymeric devices developed were macroscopic implants (monolithic devices), which required open surgery for implantation. Microencapsulation methods, however, allow the production of microparticles or nanoparticles loaded with neuroactive drugs. Because of their size, these micro- or nanoparticles may be easily implanted by stereotaxy in discrete, precise, and functional areas of the brain without causing damage to the surrounding tissue. Presently, this method is most frequently applied in the fields of neuro-oncology and neurodegenerative diseases, but neurologically, the potential applications of drug targeting by stereotactic implantation of drug-loaded particles are legion.