Functional evidence for internal feedback in the songbird brain nucleus HVCSeki, Yoshimasaa b; Okanoya, KazuobNeuroReport: April 16th, 2008 - Volume 19 - Issue 6 - p 679-682 doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e3282fb7dae Behavioral, Integrative and Clinical Neuroscience Abstract Author Information The song control system of songbirds consists mainly of the ‘motor pathway’ and ‘anterior forebrain pathway’. The medial magnocellular nucleus of anterior nidopallium (mMAN) projects to the song control nucleus HVC, which is the point of divergence of the two pathways. We made simultaneous multiunit electrophysiological recordings from the mMAN and HVC in anesthetized Bengalese finches. We confirmed that the mMAN neurons showed song-selective auditory responses, and found temporal correlations between song-related activities of the mMAN and HVC neurons. The temporal relationship between the neural activation of the HVC and mMAN suggests that these nuclei are parts of a closed loop, which could provide internal feedback to the HVC for sequential syllable control. aGraduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Chiba bLaboratory for Biolinguistics, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Japan Correspondence to Kazuo Okanoya, Laboratory for Biolinguistics, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan Fax: +81 48 467 7503; e-mail: email@example.com Received 18 January 2008; accepted 4 February 2008 © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.