The song control system of songbirds consists mainly of the ‘motor pathway’ and ‘anterior forebrain pathway’. The medial magnocellular nucleus of anterior nidopallium (mMAN) projects to the song control nucleus HVC, which is the point of divergence of the two pathways. We made simultaneous multiunit electrophysiological recordings from the mMAN and HVC in anesthetized Bengalese finches. We confirmed that the mMAN neurons showed song-selective auditory responses, and found temporal correlations between song-related activities of the mMAN and HVC neurons. The temporal relationship between the neural activation of the HVC and mMAN suggests that these nuclei are parts of a closed loop, which could provide internal feedback to the HVC for sequential syllable control.
aGraduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Chiba
bLaboratory for Biolinguistics, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Japan
Correspondence to Kazuo Okanoya, Laboratory for Biolinguistics, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
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Received 18 January 2008; accepted 4 February 2008