Brain potentials associated with true and false recognition were recorded using a paradigm consisting of categorized color photographs. Two ERP components were identified. A parietal component was most positive for both true and false recognition, less positive for rejection of lures, and least positive for rejection of novel items. A later frontal component was more positive for false recognition, rejection of lures, and misses than for true recognition and rejection of novel items. The authors suggest that the parietal component may reflect the extent to which test items engender recollection of the gist representation of the study list, while the late frontal component may reflect the engagement of effortful post-retrieval processes.