Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is now recognized as an important mediator of cell death, but a role for poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) in cell death has not previously been described. PARG is the key enzyme degrading ADP-ribose polymers produced by PARP. Here we report effects of the PARG inhibitor gallotannin on oxidative cell death. Pre-incubation of cultured murine astrocytes with as little as 100 nM gallotannin produced significant reductions in H2O2-induced cell death assessed both 24 and 72 h after H2O2 exposure. Gallotannin was more than 10-fold more potent than the PARP inhibitor benzamide in preventing H2O2-induced cell death. These results provide the first evidence that PARG inhibitors could be used to prevent oxidative cell death.