Objective: This was an epidemiological study of children with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in one medical center (Egypt).
Methods: This was a retrospective case series study; we reviewed the files of all children admitted at Imbaba fever hospital with PCR-confirmed pandemic H1N1 influenza from June 2009 to May 2010. Data extracted were age, sex, clinical features at presentation, course of illness, investigations, duration, and the outcome and also the underlying medical conditions known to be risk factors for influenza-related complications.
Results: A total of 95 children (63 males and 32 females) were studied, mean age 9.6±4.74 years. The sociodemographic data showed that most of the affected children lived in suburban (49.5%), rural (30.5%), and urban (20%) areas, with a significant statistical difference between them. The clinical presentation indicated that the common manifestations were fever (100%), followed by sore throat (87.4%) and cough (75.8%). Most of the patients responded to the usual dose of oseltamivir, but 15 patients had complications and required extended double doses; 11 patients improved and three were admitted to the ICU (two of these patients had a previous history of bronchial asthma), with no recorded mortality.
Conclusion: Pandemic H1N1 influenza did not appear to cause more severe disease than seasonal influenza. The disease mainly affects adolescents and young adults. It usually has a mild course and responds well to oseltamivir. Asthma is a significant risk factor for severe disease.