Objective: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in women worldwide. In recent years, several female-specific cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertensive pregnancy diseases (HPDs) and vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMS), have been identified. In this study, we evaluated the association between a history of HPD and the presence of VMS.
Methods: We consecutively included 853 women (mean age, 55.5 y) who visited the outpatient cardiovascular clinic for women in Kampen between 2003 and 2010. The visit included a questionnaire on history of HPD, demographic characteristics, and VMS; physical examination; and blood sampling. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data.
Results: A history of HPD was reported by 274 women (32%), and VMS were reported by 83% of women with a history of HPD and by 75% of women without a history of HPD. In adjusted models, VMS were more often present (odds ratio [OR], 1.62; 95% CI, 1.00-2.63) and more frequently persisted for longer than 1 year (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.08-3.89) among women with a history of HPD than among women with normotensive pregnancies. VMS were more often severe in women with a history of HPD, but this did not reach significance (adjusted OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.92-1.80). The frequency and intensity of VMS did not differ between both groups.
Conclusions: In our “Kampen women cardiology clinic” cohort, women with a history of HPD report VMS during the menopausal transition significantly more often than women with normotensive pregnancies.
From the 1Department of Cardiology, Isala Klinieken, Zwolle, the Netherlands; 2Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; and 4Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
Received December 5, 2012; revised and accepted January 17, 2013.
Financial disclosure/conflicts of interest: None reported.
Address correspondence to: José T. Drost, MD, Department of Cardiology, Isala Klinieken, Groot Wezenland 20, 8011 JW Zwolle, the Netherlands. E-mail: email@example.com