Skip Navigation LinksHome > Current Issue > Investigation of menopausal stage and symptoms on cognition...
Menopause:
doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000203
Original Articles

Investigation of menopausal stage and symptoms on cognition in human immunodeficiency virus–infected women

Rubin, Leah H. PhD1; Sundermann, Erin E. PhD1; Cook, Judith A. PhD1; Martin, Eileen M. PhD2; Golub, Elizabeth T. PhD, MPH3; Weber, Kathleen M. RN, BSN4; Cohen, Mardge H. MD4,5; Crystal, Howard MD6; Cederbaum, Julie A. PhD7; Anastos, Kathyrn MD8; Young, Mary MD9; Greenblatt, Ruth M. MD10; Maki, Pauline M. PhD1,11

Collapse Box

Abstract

Objective

We evaluated the separate and interactive associations of menopausal stage, menopausal symptoms, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with cognition. We hypothesized that HIV-infected perimenopausal women would show the greatest cognitive difficulties and that menopausal symptoms would be inversely associated with cognition.

Methods

This cross-sectional study included 708 HIV-infected and 278 HIV-uninfected premenopausal, perimenopausal, or postmenopausal women (64% African American; median age, 44 y) from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Participants completed tests of verbal learning and memory, attention/processing speed, and executive function. We administered a menopausal symptom questionnaire that assessed anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep symptoms and obtained measures of depressive symptoms.

Results

In multivariable regression analyses controlling for relevant covariates, HIV infection, but not menopausal stage, was associated with worse performance on all cognitive measures (P’s < 0.05). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower cognitive performance on measures of verbal learning and memory, attention, and executive function (P’s < 0.05); anxiety symptoms were associated with lower performance on measures of verbal learning and memory (P’s < 0.05). Vasomotor symptoms were associated with worse attention (P < 0.05). HIV and anxiety symptoms interacted to influence verbal learning (P’s < 0.05); elevated anxiety was associated with worse verbal learning in HIV-infected women only.

Conclusions

Vasomotor, depressive, and anxiety symptoms, but not menopausal stage, are associated with worse cognitive performance in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women, although elevated anxiety symptoms are more associated with verbal learning deficits in HIV-infected women. Because cognitive problems can interfere with everyday functioning, including treatment adherence, it may be important to screen and treat anxiety in HIV-infected women.

© 2014 by The North American Menopause Society

Login

Article Tools

Share

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.