Objective: This study aims to examine whether blood pressure reductions differ by estrogen use among overweight glucose-intolerant women.
Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of Diabetes Prevention Program postmenopausal participants who used oral estrogen with or without progestogen at baseline and 1-year follow-up (n = 324) versus those who did not use oral estrogen with or without progestogen at either time point (n = 382). Changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were examined by randomization arm (intensive lifestyle change [ILS], metformin 850 mg twice daily, or placebo). Associations between changes in blood pressure and changes in sex hormone–binding globulin, estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were also examined.
Results: Estrogen users and nonusers had similar prevalences of baseline hypertension (33% vs 34%, P = 0.82) and use of blood pressure medications at baseline (P = 0.25) and on follow-up (P = 0.10). Estrogen users and nonusers randomized to ILS had similar decreases in SBP (−3.3 vs −4.7 mm Hg, P = 0.45) and DBP (−3.1 vs −4.7 mm Hg, P = 0.16). Among estrogen users, women randomized to ILS had significant declines in SBP (P = 0.016) and DBP (P = 0.009) versus placebo. Among nonusers, women randomized to ILS had significant declines in DBP (P = 0.001) versus placebo, but declines in SBP were not significant (P = 0.11). Metformin was not associated with blood pressure reductions versus placebo regardless of estrogen therapy. Blood pressure changes were not associated with changes in sex hormones regardless of estrogen therapy.
Conclusions: Among overweight women with dysglycemia, the magnitude of blood pressure reductions after ILS is unrelated to postmenopausal estrogen use.