Objective: Visceral fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome incidence among women increase after menopause; therefore, fat metabolic changes and fat redistribution may occur according to menstrual status. The aim of our study was to clarify differences in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue metabolism between premenopausal and postmenopausal women, using metabolomics.
Methods: Thirty-nine (16 premenopausal and 23 postmenopausal) women were recruited through elective gynecologic surgery, and both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were collected during surgical operation. Metabolite profiling of adipose tissue was performed by capillary electrophoresis with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Results: Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate, a midproduct of the pentose phosphate pathway, was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in visceral adipose tissues of premenopausal women. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate and fructose-1,6-biphosphate, midproducts of glycolysis, were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in subcutaneous adipose tissues of postmenopausal women. The concentrations of fatty acid metabolites—heptanoate (C7:0; premenopausal vs postmenopausal, 4.07 [0.72] vs 2.64 [0.28] nmol/g), octanoate (C8:0; 3.52 [0.29] vs 5.20 [0.29] nmol/g), and pelargonate (C9:0; 8.03 [0.49] vs 10.66 [0.44] nmol/g)—in the visceral fat (but not in subcutaneous fat) of postmenopausal women were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in the visceral fat of premenopausal women.
Conclusions: Fatty acid metabolites increase in visceral fat (but not in subcutaneous fat) after menopause. The change in fatty acid metabolism in visceral adipose tissues might be related to metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.