The menopausal transition is associated with an increase in risk for cardiovascular disease; however, whether variability in reproductive aging relates to cardiovascular risk factors in the premenopausal period has not been studied.
In a multiethnic sample of 951 healthy, regularly cycling women aged 25 to 45 years (mean [SD] age, 35.2 [5.5] y), we examined antimüllerian hormone (AMH), a validated marker of ovarian reserve, in relation to the overall number of cardiometabolic risk factors, calculated as the sum of the five components of metabolic syndrome (triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL; high-density lipoprotein <50 mg/dL; homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance ≥2.6; waist circumference equal to or higher than race-specific cutoff; and hypertensive [vs normotensive] status), and in relation to each of these risk factors individually.
In age-adjusted models, results showed that the number of cardiometabolic risk factors was 52.1% higher among women with low versus high AMH levels and 46.0% higher among women with mid versus high AMH levels. In addition, results showed that low and mid levels of AMH (vs high) were associated with an increase in risk with respect to high-density lipoprotein (odds ratio [OR], 1.814; 95% CI, 1.211-2.718 and OR, 1.568; 95% CI, 1.083-2.269, respectively), waist circumference (OR, 2.012; 95% CI, 1.380-2.934 and OR, 1.881; 95% CI, 1.333-2.654, respectively), and hypertensive status (OR, 2.373; 95% CI, 1.095-5.143 and OR, 2.052; 95% CI, 0.976-4.314, respectively) outcomes. Associations, however, attenuated when body mass index was covaried (Ps > 0.05).
Cross-sectional evidence suggests that having a greater ovarian reserve is associated with having a healthier cardiometabolic risk factor profile. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether this association may be mediated by body mass index.