Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of smokeless tobacco extract on ovariectomized female rats and to investigate the role of resveratrol in alleviating associated vascular and diabetic complications.
Methods: Thirty-six female Wistar rats (8 wk old) were subjected to bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation and randomly assigned to six groups: sham operation; OVX; OVX + aqueous extract of smokeless tobacco (AEST); OVX + AEST + 17β-estradiol; OVX + AEST + resveratrol 25 mg/kg/day PO; and OVX + AEST + resveratrol 50 mg/kg/day PO. All treatments were given for 60 days. Various vascular and metabolic markers (such as serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, estradiol, glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose tolerance), ex vivo vascular reactivity of aortic ring, and aortic collagen levels were estimated after the treatments.
Results: Oral exposure to smokeless tobacco extract in ovariectomized female rats triggered a significant increase in metabolic markers (viz, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin), and aortic collagen levels. It also led to decreased serum nitrate-nitrite levels and vascular reactivity. Resveratrol 50 mg/kg/day PO attenuated detrimental changes in aortic reactivity and aortic collagen levels, improved glucose tolerance, and reversed the deleterious effects on other serum parameters comparable to 17β-estradiol.
Conclusions: Resveratrol treatment for 60 days abrogates the deleterious effects of smokeless tobacco on ovariectomized female rats. Resveratrol in adequate doses can be effectively used as an alternative to estrogen therapy for smokeless tobacco–induced vascular and diabetic complications.