Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ovarian hormone withdrawal and a high fructose diet on the development of atherogenic dyslipidemia in rats. Because amla (Indian gooseberry) is known to possess hypolipidemic properties, its preventive effect on the above was also studied.
Methods: Three-month-old female albino rats were either ovariectomized (n = 48) or sham-operated (n = 12). The study was performed in two phases: phase 1 (first 12 wk) and phase 2 (next 6 wk). The sham-operated rats were fed rodent chow in both phases (control). The ovariectomized rats were assigned to four groups: rats fed chow in both phases (O), rats fed a 60% fructose-rich diet in phase 2 alone (O + F), rats administered chow and amla extract in both phases (O + A), and rats administered chow + amla extract in phase 1 and then fed a 60% fructose-rich diet + amla extract in phase 2 (O + F + A).
Results: O + F rats developed insulin resistance and had increased triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol. O + A and O + F + A groups had significantly lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared with controls. O + F + A did not develop insulin resistance and had reduced TGs compared with O + F rats. O + A and O + F + A rats showed a tremendous decrease in non-HDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, TG/HDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratios.
Conclusions: Amla decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol in ovariectomized rats fed chow or fructose. In ovariectomized and fructose-fed rats, it prevented insulin resistance aside from subduing the rise in TG. Amla may be explored for its use in preventing dyslipidemia in postmenopausal women.