Objectives: The aims of this study were to compare in participants with and without metabolic syndrome (1) bone mineral density (BMD), (2) prevalent vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, and (3) calciotropic hormones and bone turnover markers and to examine the association of each component of metabolic syndrome with bone parameters.
Methods: A cross-sectional study (495 men and 1,013 women) from the Camargo Cohort Study was conducted. A multivariable regression approach was used to analyze the relationship between the components of metabolic syndrome and bone parameters.
Results: Women with metabolic syndrome had higher age-adjusted BMD at all localizations (P < 0.0001) than did women without metabolic syndrome. Adjusting for body mass index canceled out this difference at the spine and femoral neck, although borderline significance persisted at the total hip. Moreover, in regression analyses, waist circumference (P < 0.0001) and hypertension (P between 0.002 and <0.0001) highly correlated with BMD at the three sites. However, no significant differences in BMD were found in men between those with and without metabolic syndrome. No differences in the prevalence of vertebral or nonvertebral fractures between participants with metabolic syndrome and controls were found for either sex. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) and parathyroid hormone was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in women with metabolic syndrome than in women without metabolic syndrome, whereas no differences were seen in men. Propeptide of type I collagen and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were significantly lower in participants with metabolic syndrome than in controls in either sex.
Conclusions: Women with metabolic syndrome show higher BMD than controls do, mainly driven by their higher body weight. Bone remodeling in these women is lower. Despite the greater bone mass and lower bone turnover, fracture prevalence is not reduced, suggesting worse bone quality and/or higher tendency to fall. No differences in BMD or fractures were seen in men, suggesting that the impact of metabolic syndrome on bone is sex dependent.