Skip Navigation LinksHome > May/June 2010 - Volume 17 - Issue 3 > Predictors of breast discomfort among women initiating menop...
Menopause:
doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e3181c29e68
Articles

Predictors of breast discomfort among women initiating menopausal hormone therapy

Crandall, Carolyn J. MD, MS1; Markovic, Daniela MS2; Huang, Mei-Hua DrPH1; Greendale, Gail A. MD1

Collapse Box

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the determinants of breast discomfort among postmenopausal women initiating menopausal hormone therapy (HT).

Methods: We analyzed questionnaire, anthropometric, and serum estrone data from the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) Trial, a randomized trial comparing placebo, conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) alone, or CEE with a progestogen (continuous or cyclical medroxyprogesterone acetate or cyclical micronized progesterone) among postmenopausal women. HT users could join the PEPI Trial after stopping HT for 2 months. We modeled the relation between smoking, body weight, alcohol consumption, age, quitting HT for the PEPI Trial, physical activity, and α-tocopherol consumption and new-onset breast discomfort at the 12-month follow-up among 662 participants without baseline breast discomfort.

Results: The associations of new-onset breast discomfort with weight and with strenuous exercise varied by treatment assignment. Among women assigned to CEE + progestogen, strenuous exercise was associated with a 49% lower odds of new-onset breast discomfort (odds ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29-0.89; P = 0.02), whereas among women assigned to placebo or CEE alone, strenuous exercise was not significantly associated with new-onset breast discomfort. Surprisingly, among women taking CEE alone, each kilogram higher weight was associated with a 6% lower odds of new-onset breast discomfort (P = 0.04), whereas among women taking placebo, the association was in the opposite direction (P = 0.04). Adjustment for estrone level had negligible effects on odds ratios. α-Tocopherol intake, age, smoking, and alcohol intake were not significantly associated with new-onset breast discomfort in adjusted analyses.

Conclusions: Strenuous exercise and higher body weight may decrease the odds of new-onset breast discomfort among postmenopausal women initiating HT.

©2010The North American Menopause Society

Login

Article Tools

Share

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.