Chorioamnionitis most often occurs during labor, affecting as many as 10% of laboring women. When intrapartum chorioamnionitis occurs, women are at peripartal risk for endometritis, cesarean birth, and postpartum hemorrhage; and the neonate is at significant risk for sepsis, pneumonia, respiratory distress, and death. The impact is greater for preterm infants where the incidence of chorioamnionitis is nearly 30%. When chorioamnionitis is believed to be present, antibiotics are administered, but not without potential adverse consequence to the mother/fetus, as well as significantly increased healthcare cost. A number of factors increase the risk of chorioamnionitis, including use of intrauterine pressure catheters and fetal scalp electrodes, urogenital tract infections, prolonged rupture of membranes, digital vaginal examinations, and the nature of perineal hygiene. This article presents key intrapartum factors and those nursing actions that can help to reduce rates of chorioamnionitis and improve perinatal outcomes.