Interpretation of Changes in Health-related Quality of Life: The Remarkable Universality of Half a Standard Deviation
Norman, Geoffrey R. PhD*; Sloan, Jeff A. PhD†; Wyrwich, Kathleen W. PhD‡
*From McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
†From the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.
‡From Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Geoffrey R. Norman, PhD, Program for Educational Research and Development, Building T-13, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada. E-mail: Norman@mcmaster.ca
Background. A number of studies have computed the minimally important difference (MID) for health-related quality of life instruments.
Objective. To determine whether there is consistency in the magnitude of MID estimates from different instruments.
Methods. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that computed an MID and contained sufficient information to compute an effect size (ES). Thirty-eight studies fulfilled the criteria, resulting in 62 ESs.
Results. For all but 6 studies, the MID estimates were close to one half a SD (mean = 0.495, SD = 0.155). There was no consistent relationship with factors such as disease-specific or generic instrument or the number of response options. Negative changes were not associated with larger ESs. Population-based estimation procedures and brief follow-up were associated with smaller ESs, and acute conditions with larger ESs. An explanation for this consistency is that research in psychology has shown that the limit of people’s ability to discriminate over a wide range of tasks is approximately 1 part in 7, which is very close to half a SD.
Conclusion. In most circumstances, the threshold of discrimination for changes in health-related quality of life for chronic diseases appears to be approximately half a SD.
The interpretation of changes in health-related quality of life (HRQL) has been a research focus for more than a decade. 1 More recently, researchers have been devising methods to identify a minimal level of change consistent with real, as opposed to statistically significant, benefit. 2
The determination of the minimal level of real change for any HRQL scale can be a daunting task. It may potentially vary for different questionnaires, different diseases, and different demographic groups. Potential influences related to the questionnaire itself include the relative position of the individual on the HRQL scale (ie, floor and ceiling effects 3), the number of steps on the scale, the number of items, and so forth. The intent of the analysis (making a diagnosis vs. testing the efficacy of an intervention) and the identity of the individual performing the assessment (patient vs. clinical staff) could potentially result in a different estimate of important change. Collectively, considering all these variables for each measure, this variation represents a prohibitive impediment to the successful implementation of HRQL endpoints in clinical research and practice.
However, there is some evidence that some of these various factors may have a relatively small impact on the magnitude of the minimal difference. Certainly, some authors have noted that, over a series of studies with a diversity of conditions and age groups using disease-specific measures with 7-point response scales, the minimally important difference (MID) appears to fall consistently close to 0.5 points on the 7-point scale. 1,4,5 It is the thesis of the present article that there is more commonality than difference in the variety of approaches. We will show that a multiplicity of methods, using several different scales from time tradeoff to visual analogue, with the number of items ranging from 1 to more than 50, in a diversity of chronic conditions, led to remarkably similar estimates. We will argue that this convergence is not accidental, but is a direct consequence of the limit of human discrimination ability. Finally, we will point out some circumstances that diverge from this consistency.
Approaches to Estimating the Minimally Important Difference
Perhaps the earliest criterion for identifying important change was devised by Cohen, 6 who expressed differences as an effect size—the average change divided by the baseline SD. He stated that in the context of comparing group averages, a small effect size was 0.2, a medium was 0.5, and a large effect size was 0.8. His primary intent was to provide some basis for sample size calculations. However, although Cohen 6 did indicate the criteria “as convention,” they have frequently been referred to in health sciences literature to decide whether a change is important or unimportant, including the assertion that a moderate effect size of half a SD was typically important.
Some authors have disputed the definition by Cohen 6 of a moderate effect size as arbitrary, although without substantive arguments for other values. Testa 7 suggested that a threshold medium effect size for individual change should be set at 0.6 rather than 0.5, but this definition also appears arbitrary. Feinstein 8 suggested an alternative value of 0.56, which resulted from detailed mathematical derivations related to the correlation coefficient. Still, although there may be a case for these different values, they remain fairly close to a 0.5 effect size. Conversely, Sloan et al 9 argued that an effect size of 0.5 corresponds to roughly the same value as the 0.5/7 shown with anchor-based methods 1 by assuming that, if the entire range of any scale is considered to span 6 standard deviations, then the 0.5 effect size by Cohen 6 would equate to approximately 8%, or almost exactly 0.5 on a 7-point scale.
By contrast, anchor-based methods explicitly examine the relationship between an HRQL measure and an independent criterion (or anchor) to elucidate the meaning of a particular degree of change. The most popular anchor-based approach uses an estimate of the MID, defined as “the smallest difference in score in the domain of interest which patients perceive as beneficial and which would mandate, in the absence of troublesome side-effects and excessive cost, a change in the patient’s management.”1 Typically, methods used to assess the MID from patients are based on a retrospective judgment about whether they have improved, stayed the same, or worsened over some period of time. The methods then establish a threshold based on the change in HRQL in patients who report minimal change, either for better or for worse.
An important consideration, in view of what follows, is one of terminology. Nowhere in the operationalization of the MID approach is there a consideration of importance, or of the tradeoff between benefit and side effects or costs, as appears in the frequently cited definition above. Thus, the criterion may be more appropriately thought of as a minimally detectable difference (MDD), not a minimally important difference. 10,11 As such, it can be viewed as a threshold of detection, analogous to the just noticeable difference of psychophysics.
Another class of anchor-based method involves longitudinal follow-up to determine whether subgroups can be identified that have clinically different outcomes, such as rehospitalization, relapse of cancer, Medical Research Council grading, or different interventions. Although these approaches clearly yield differences that are clinically important (CID), it is not at all clear that they are, in any sense, minimal.
A final approach, population-based, popularized by Stewart et al, 12 identifies subpopulations with minimally different levels of health (for example, on hypertensive therapy vs. normal, 50 vs. 45 years old) and then looks at the differences in scores on a generic HRQL measure. Although these differences have external significance in terms of population differences, the link to clinical significance, or to any estimate of minimal difference at the individual level, is unclear.
To create a uniform nomenclature in the text to follow, we refer to a difference derived from an individual anchor-based method as minimal difference (MD), with the two subclasses defined above as MDD and CID. Consideration of population difference approaches will emerge in the discussion.
Distribution and anchor-based methods appear to be conceptually very different. 13 Typically it is argued that effect sizes are based entirely on statistical criteria and are thus are dependent on the SD, which may conceivably change from one sample to another. By contrast, most anchor- based approaches are based on an external criterion like retrospective judgment of change, and hence are presumed to be sample-independent.
Despite these apparent differences between methods, it is not clear that they will lead to radically different results. Indeed, there is evidence that some apparently diverse methods yield similar findings. Wyrwich 14–16 showed that the standard error of measurement (SEM) (ς 1 - R) from psychometric theory, yielded results approximately the same as the 0.5 on a 7-point scale of the MID methods, which amounts to a convergence between distribution and anchor-based methods. In turn, other common change criteria such as the Jacobson reliable change index 17 and the standardized response mean 18 are related to the SEM, differing only in a numerical multiplier.
These informal observations suggest that the MD, whether defined distributionally or from external anchors, often emerges as approximately equal to 1/2 of a SD. If this were shown to be true based on a more systematic review, it could result in a substantial change in the current research focus. Instead of cataloging the minimal difference for different measures and populations, research could more profitably be directed at determining what factors related to questionnaire design, intended use, and clinical or population characteristics may lead to a departure from a default value of 0.5 SD. It is not inconceivable that an MD for a specific situation might be created a priori by taking into account the general characteristics of the situation, rather than having to conduct a separate study for every HRQL instrument in every setting.
We conducted a systematic review of the literature to locate studies that had attempted to determine a threshold using one of the anchor-based methods and that had, in addition, provided sufficient information to permit a calculation of an effect size, to examine the degree of similarity or difference among methods. We explored 4 questions with this data set:
1. What is the degree of consistency of minimal difference determined by anchor-based methods, as expressed by effect sizes?
2. Is the effect size influenced by the anchoring criterion? Specifically, do methods directed at determining the MDD, as defined above, yield effect sizes that differ from methods directed at determining the CID?
3. Is the effect size related to the type of scale used, specifically the number of steps in the response scale?
4. Is the effect size related to whether the instrument is generic or disease-specific?
Materials and Methods
We systematically reviewed the HRQL literature to identify studies that (1) developed or used MD thresholds to evaluate change over time and (2) included data for the baseline SD of the HRQL measures. We began with a comprehensive computerized literature search of the Medline database of published articles from 1966 to April 2002. The key words quality of life were intersected with the text words meaningful change, relevant change, important difference, meaningful difference, relevant difference, important difference, minimal importance, clinical significance, minimally important, and effect size. The resulting articles were examined for their appropriateness to this review. The initial search yielded a total of 174 articles. Inspection of the titles and abstracts eliminated editorials and review articles, research agenda proposals, and other articles that would not include a threshold for change and the SD of measured subjects at baseline and reduced the number for further consideration to 58. We obtained copies of these 58 articles, and further review left 34 articles that met the criteria above for which effect sizes could potentially be computed. However, on detailed analysis, 5 more articles were eliminated for a number of reasons (incoherent data—for instance, there was no consistency in the amount of change on the HRQL instrument and the global measure of degree of change; incorrect statistics, such as an effect size computed from the SD of change scores; methodological problems—degree of change defined within the HRQL instrument), leaving 29 articles. These articles were then supplemented with a further 9 studies from the authors’ files. These were published articles not identified on the search (6) (usually because the primary intent of the study was not related to establishing an MID), recent publications (1), preprints (1), or conference presentations (1). From these 38 studies, we were able to compute a total of 62 effect sizes because many studies contained more than 1 instrument. Six studies were excluded from the main analysis and will be discussed separately.
To address factors which might influence these results, we coded each study on 3 different descriptive variables:
1. Method of determining the difference –MDD using either the Jaeschke 1 or Redelmeier 19 patient-perceived difference approach (n = 43) or CID (n = 13), based on a clinical outcome event
2. Seven-point scale (n = 14) or other scaling method (n = 42)
3. Disease-specific (n = 39) or generic (n = 17) HRQL instrument
Finally, we used the data from a few of these studies (9 studies, 20 effect sizes) to examine whether negative changes are associated with larger MDs, as has been claimed by some authors. 20
All of the contrasts were examined with t-tests. We recognize that in the present data set, it often arises that multiple measures are derived from the same study. Under these circumstances, a simple t-test, which treats the data as independent observations, is liberal. However, in the event, all the t-tests were not significant; thus, we can be confident in our interpretation.
A summary of the studies 3,5,8,12,14,15,21–54 is shown in Table 1. For each study, we have listed the first author and year of publication, the clinical condition, the specific instruments used, the nature of the response scale, the total sample size (not all of which will have entered into the MDD or CID calculation, since these are usually based on subgroups), the mean age, the proportion male, the follow-up, where these data were available, and the effect size.
When the instrument in question uses multiple subscales, independence cannot assumed. Consequently, we computed the mean effect size across all subscales, and also indicated in the last column the range of observed effect sizes. Similarly, if the method involved multiple comparisons (for example, in the study by Bestall et al, 36 comparison between Medical Research Council grades 3 and 4 and comparison between grades 4 and 5), the average was computed and the range listed in the last column.
The most common condition studied was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with heart failure, asthma, and various cancers as other commonly studied conditions. Three studies looked at arthritis, 2 at gastrointestinal disease, 1 at carpal tunnel syndrome, and 1 at multiple sclerosis. Reflecting the conditions studied, the most common disease-specific questionnaire was the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire. Other McMaster-derived questionnaires using similar item structures and 7-point scales are the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ), the Chronic Heart Questionnaire (CHQ) for heart failure, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universitites Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) for arthritis, the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ) for colitis, the Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) for gastrointestinal pain, and the Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) for rhinitis. A number of studies used the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) generic instrument or subscales derived from the SF-36 and the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP). In addition, there were several cancer specific instruments (FACT-G, LCS, TOI). Response scales were dominated by 7-point and 5-point scales, but a number of other methods (visual analogue scale, time tradeoff, symptom checklists) were also used.
The mean effect size across all measures was 0.495, SD = 0.15. The overall distribution of effect sizes is shown in Figure 1, which displays a reasonably normal distribution. Three studies with effect size greater than 0.90 resulted from the use of a clinical endpoint to subdivide groups and cannot be assumed to represent a minimal value. Thus, the studies we have examined result in estimates of a threshold of important change that are consistently close to approximately one half of the SD (baseline).
Factors Influencing the Magnitude of the Minimal Effect Size
Further analysis examined some factors within the studies that may influence the magnitude of the minimal difference.
The first factor examined was the method used to obtain the MD, basically in the 2 broad classes of MDD or CID, as discussed earlier. Whereas the CID mean was marginally higher (0.53 vs. 0.47), this value was not significant (t  = 1.12, P = 0.27). Similarly, the standard deviations were smaller among the MDD studies (0.15 for MDD, 0.18 for CID), but this difference was not significant (Levene F = 0.04, P = 0.84).
We then examined the nature of the scale response to determine whether the uniformity of the limit of discrimination of 1 in 7 was in some way related to the use of a 7-point scale. Comparing 7-point scales to all others, the mean effect sizes were both close to 0.5 (0.53 for 7-point scales, 0.47 for other scales, t  = 1.10, P = 0.27). Further, the heterogeneity among the other scaling approaches was not reflected in heterogeneous effect sizes; the standard deviations were very close (0.19 for 7-point scales vs. 0.14 for other scales, Levene F = 0.31, P = 0.58). An analysis of effect sizes for scales with 4, 5, 7, and 10 points (n = 3, 19, 13, and 3, respectively) showed mean values of 0.43, 0.47, 0.52, and 0.50 (F[3,34] = 0.37, P = 0.77). The correlation between number of scale points and effect size was 0.14 (P = 0.40). Thus, there is no evidence that the 0.50 effect size is restricted to 7-point scales.
Finally, we examined generic versus disease-specific scales. Although a number of studies have shown that disease-specific scales are more responsive, this does not necessarily imply that the MD will be lower. The results confirm this; the mean effect size for disease-specific scales was 0.48 versus 0.50 for generic scales (t = 0.49, P = 0.62).
Thus, all the factors we have examined have shown a relatively small impact on the computed effect size. The mean for all 6 subgroups remained with the range 0.49 to 0.56, consistently close to 1/2 a SD, and no significant differences arose. Although the concern may be raised that we had insufficient power to detect a difference, we have computed that, with a sample size of 35 and 15, we had a power of approximately 0.80 to detect a difference of 0.1.
Why Is It Always 0.5?
It seems too remote a coincidence that all these methods converge on approximately 0.5 SD as a threshold value. But what can be the basis for this remarkable consistency? As it turns out, there is some evidence derived from investigations of the psychology of discrimination that may explain the phenomenon.
In 1956, Miller 55 noted that across a wide range of unidimensional discrimination tasks (saltiness of tastes, points on a line, pitch and loudness of sounds, and so forth), the limit of people’s abilities to make absolute discriminations turned out to be very consistent. People were capable of identifying the category of a particular stimulus (loudness of sounds, saltiness of tastes) accurately until the number of categories reached approximately 7 (with a range from approximately 5–9). This observation led to his classic article “The Magic Number Seven Plus or Minus Two,” in which he argues that this uniformity derives from a fundamental characteristic of human information processing that he calls “channel capacity,” related indirectly to limits on short-term memory.
Perhaps this limit of discrimination also applies here. We must first convert “1 part in 7” to SD units. In the original tasks, the stimuli were sampled from a rectangular distribution with a finite range. It can be shown that for a uniform rectangular distribution 7 units wide, the SD equals 2.16, so 1 part in 7, expressed in SD units, is 1/2.16 or 0.46. Similarly, accounting for Miller’s 55 “plus or minus two,” for a rectangular distribution of 5 levels, the SD is 1.58, and 1 in 5 is an effect size of 0.63; for a distribution 9 units wide, the SD is 2.73, and effect size is 0.36.
Thus, based on Miller’s 55 review, the limit of human discrimination is equivalent to an effect size between 0.36 and 0.63. The effect sizes observed in Table 1 have a range (± 1 sd) from 0.34 to 0.64. Thus, the range of estimates for the MD, expressed in SD units, corresponds almost exactly to the limit of human discrimination identified by Miller 55 more than 40 years ago. Since the measures we examined are based, one way or another, on the notion of a threshold between essentially undetectable and minimally detectable change, it is no coincidence that these disparate methods, conducted on diverse clinical populations with a wide range of instruments and different criteria, arrive at a similar value. Moreover, estimates derived from both minimally detectable and clinically important differences on follow-up yield estimates of the same magnitude.
Is It Always 0.5?
Although the methods we have reviewed demonstrate remarkable uniformity, this finding may not be universal. We excluded 6 studies in total from the summary analysis of Table 1 because they appeared to show abnormally large or small effect sizes and were derived from study populations or methods that were very different from the remaining studies. These studies fell into 3 classes.
In the first class are studies directed at establishing differences based on different populations, a method called population-based by Stewart et al. 12 Brook et al 56 used data from the Rand surveys in the 1970s and 1980s to estimate a minimal difference in quality of life equivalent to 5 years of aging and, alternatively, 17 points on the Holmes and Rahe Life Events scale. They then examined effect sizes for a variety of domains of quality of life. As shown in a study by Testa, 57 these differences were all very close to an effect size of 0.08, much smaller than those observed in the present study. Samsa et al 37 discuss attempts to set a minimal difference on the SF-20 by Stewart et al 12 using the difference in score of hypertensive and normal healthy persons. The difference was an effect size 0.09 to 0.28. Perhaps these results are not surprising; the criterion, while derived from population differences, has no direct relation to a limit of discrimination at an individual level. Further, the equating of 5 years of aging or 17 points on a stress scale to a minimal difference is arbitrary. Moreover, although hypertension can pose a significant health risk, most hypertensives do not have symptoms that would affect HRQL.
A second class of studies is derived from patients recovering from an acute condition. Stratford et al 52 computed MDs for patients receiving physical therapy for low back pain, and found that the minimal difference was a change of 5 points on the Roland Morris Back Pain Questionnaire, which, based on their baseline SD of 5.8, amounts to an effect size of 0.86. Heald et al 51 studied 36 outpatients with acute shoulder pain, of whom 34 showed “meaningful change.” The average change score on a disease-specific measure, the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), was equivalent to an effect size of 1.38; the SIP total showed an effect size of 0.80. For both studies, this amounts to a somewhat larger magnitude of change than those in the other studies considered. However, the patient populations were very different from those with chronic diseases in Table 1; subjects were healthy people recovering from an episode of back or shoulder pain and referred to a therapist, with every expectation of complete recovery. Their standard of comparison is not their baseline pain at the beginning of treatment, but the eventual and expected absence of pain. Perhaps these circumstances result in higher expectations of what constitutes minimal change.
Finally, in the third class, 1 study looked at a very short follow-up interval. Schwartz et al 53 used measures of fatigue following chemotherapy and examined change over a 2-day period. They found effect sizes ranging from 0.05 to 0.33 (mean 0.12) on a variety of fatigue-specific measures. It is possible that, because of the very short time interval, patients were able to recall more precisely their initial state and hence were more sensitive to small changes.
Is It 0.5 SD Across the Range of Responses?
Stratford et al 52 also examined the relation between the MID and baseline values of HRQL. Using the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) approach described above, they found a clear positive relation between degree of disability and the MD. Those with minimal impairment (Roland–Morris Questionnaire (RMQ) scores < 8) had an MID of 1, whereas those in the highest impairment category (RMQ > 16) had an MID of 7. Again, this finding may well reflect expectations of return to health, as well as ceiling effects (where with minimal impairment, there is little room to improve). As such, this would appear to be a very different situation than that encountered with chronic diseases.
Is It 0.05 for Positive and Negative Changes?
Although the original articles by Jaeschke et al 1 and Juniper et al 4 found that the MD for positive and negative changes was approximately equal, providing a rationale for combining the 2, this is not a uniform finding, and others have argued that worsening states should be treated differently from improving states. 20 Several of the studies in the present review provided data for both improving and worsening states, permitting an examination of the question. The overall difference between MDs in the worsening and improving groups was 0.09 (0.45 vs. 0.54, t  = 1.11, not significant). Thus, we found no evidence that worsening states had a greater MD than improving states.
How Do We Communicate the 0.5 SD Concept?
As Lydick and Epstein 58 pointed out, expressing minimal changes in terms of statistical quantities is of limited value to clinicians. Thus, however ubiquitous the “half a SD” criterion may turn out to be, it may be of limited interpretive value. One simple option is to convert this back into the values for the original HRQL tool. For example, as we showed earlier, a half SD threshold is about the same as an MID of 0.5 on a 7-point scale. Alternatively, Norman et al 25 showed that there is an approximately linear relationship between effect size and the proportion benefitting, so a threshold of 0.5 amounts to a proportion benefitting of the order of 0.17, and, by inverting, a number needed to treat of approximately 6. Finally, for a test-retest reliability of approximately 0.75, the 0.5 SD threshold is exactly equivalent to 1 SEM, which Wyrwich et al 14–16 previously demonstrated to correspond with the MID. Because the reliability of most HRQL measures exceeds 0.75, the 0.5 SD threshold may be a more stringent criterion than 1 SEM.
The present article has shown that under many circumstances, when patients with a chronic disease are asked to identify minimal change, the estimates fall very close to half a SD. This turns out to be approximately the same as the range of human discrimination identified by Miller 55 in 1956. Thus, while initial evidence showing convergence among different approaches 14 may be viewed as nothing more than a remarkable coincidence, we have shown that it may be more than happenstance. There is good reason to presume that this consistency is a reflection of basic psychological processes and could be viewed as a default value unless other evidence comes to light.
Some authors have expressed appropriate concern when simple solutions to complex problems have been proposed. Hays and Woolley 59 specifically argue against the possibility of deriving a single absolute threshold. They argue that no single statistical decision rule or procedure can take the place of a well reasoned consideration of all aspects of the data by a group of concerned, competent, and experienced persons with a wide range of scientific backgrounds and points of view. However, the half SD criterion is not an arbitrary statistical criterion but is empirically derived, based on psychological theory, and is a reflection of the collective judgment processes of the many 100s of individuals who have participated in the studies in quality of life and in the psychology laboratory. Further, just as 0.05 has become an accepted convention for statistical significance, one may expect that the same could occur with time for the 1/2 SD criterion, which is based on a sounder psychological and empirical foundation.
Implications for Research
Although the approximate value of 0.5 SD appears to hold in a wide variety of situations, it would be presumptuous to assume that it is universal, and we have identified some, but obviously not all, exceptions. So where does this leave the researcher and the practitioner?
For the researcher, the finding suggests a refocus. Instead of cataloging the MD for every instrument, every disease, every demographic subgroup, and every possible goal, we should be attempting to identify those factors that will result in systematic and substantial departure from the 0.5 SD norm. A first step may well be to decide what constitutes a substantial departure. We have seen from this survey that differences in effect size of the order of 0.15 to 0.25 can easily occur within and between studies, without any apparent explanation, and that this range of estimates fits within the range of human discrimination identified by Miller. 55 However, we have also seen that some more substantial departures can occur, and we have speculated about the reason for these exceptions. But this possibility remains unproven, and it is not clear what variables influence the magnitude of this difference. Conceptual frameworks for looking at the factors that may influence responsiveness and the MD, such as that by Beaton et al, 60 may be useful for research, but these may not capture all important factors. Further, although some definitions of the MD include issues of importance, benefits, side effects, and costs, the precise way in which these factors may influence the threshold remains unknown.
For the practitioner or regulator, it may well be that the value of 0.5 SD can serve as a default value for important patient-perceived change on HRQL measures used with patients with chronic diseases. That is, in the situation in which there is little evidence about how an instrument will perform (which must, for some time, be the norm), interpretation about the clinical importance of a treatment effect could initially be based on whether it does or does not exceed 0.5 SD. It would be inappropriate for this be viewed as a fixed benchmark, like the α of 0.05 for statistical significance, but it would not be inappropriate to consider this as an approximate rule of thumb in the absence of more specific information.
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Current Medical Research and OpinionValidation of the sleep impact scale in patients with major depressive disorder and insomniaCurrent Medical Research and Opinion
Journal of Sexual MedicineSexual, Marital, and Social Impact of a Man's Perceived Infertility DiagnosisJournal of Sexual Medicine
Archives of Neurology
The Clinically Important Difference on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale
Archives of Neurology, 67(1):
European Child & Adolescent PsychiatryThe quality of life of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic reviewEuropean Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Bju InternationalProstate cancer survivors who would be eligible for active surveillance but were either treated with radiotherapy or managed expectantly: comparisons on long-term quality of life and symptom burdenBju International
PainPatient training in cancer pain management using integrated print and video materials: A multisite randomized controlled trialPain
Allergy and Asthma ProceedingsUsing the Congestion Quantifier Seven-Item Test to assess change in patient symptoms and their impactAllergy and Asthma Proceedings
AphasiologyThe reliability of rating conversation as a measure of functional communication following strokeAphasiology
Revista De Neurologia
Psychometric Attributes of Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Cognition (Scopa-Cog). Castilian Language
Revista De Neurologia, 47(7):
British Medical JournalReporting and interpretation of SF-36 outcomes in randomised trials: systematic reviewBritish Medical Journal
Kidney InternationalNocturnal hemodialysis does not improve overall measures of quality of life compared to conventional hemodialysisKidney International
Journal of Clinical EpidemiologyMinimally important differences were estimated for the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C) instrument using a combination of distribution- and anchor-based approachesJournal of Clinical Epidemiology
Journal of Clinical OncologyImpacting quality of life for patients with advanced cancer with a structured multidisciplinary intervention: A randomized controlled trialJournal of Clinical Oncology
Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsExercise for acutely hospitalised older medical patientsCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand SurgeryPatient-reported outcomes after breast reconstruction with deep inferior epigastric perforator flapsScandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery
PediatricsDeterminants of child-parent agreement in quality-of-life reports: A European study of children with cerebral palsyPediatrics
Bone Marrow TransplantationHealth status and quality of life in long-term survivors of childhood leukaemia: the impact of haematopoietic stem cell transplantationBone Marrow Transplantation
Journal of Personality Assessment
Methods for analyzing psychotherapy outcomes: A review of clinical significance, reliable change, and recommendations for future directions
Journal of Personality Assessment, 82(1):
Clinical TherapeuticsProspective observational study of patient-reported outcomes for azithromycin versus usual care in the treatment of bacterial acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitisClinical Therapeutics
Ethnicity & Disease
Ethnic variation in health-related quality of life among low-income men with prostate cancer
Ethnicity & Disease, 15(3):
Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsChemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer - art. no. CD004064.pub2Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Journal of Clinical OncologyUse of a case definition approach to identify cancer-related fatigue in women undergoing adjuvant therapy for breast cancerJournal of Clinical Oncology
Journal of General Internal MedicinePatient and Physician Beliefs About Control over Health: Association of Symmetrical Beliefs with Medication Regimen AdherenceJournal of General Internal Medicine
UrologyReduction in Patient-reported Acute Morbidity in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With 81-Gy Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy Using Reduced Planning Target Volume Margins and Electromagnetic Tracking: Assessing the Impact of Margin Reduction StudyUrology
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS CareRisk Factors and Symptoms Associated With Pain in HIV-Infected AdultsJanac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
Journal of Clinical EpidemiologyThe minimal detectable change cannot reliably replace the minimal important differenceJournal of Clinical Epidemiology
CancerPrognostic Value of Symptom Burden for Overall Survival in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Advanced Nonsmall Cell Lung CancerCancer
Respiratory MedicineThe SF-36 and SGRQ: Validity and first look at minimum important differences in IPFRespiratory Medicine
Evaluation ReviewValidation of the Crime and Violence Scale (CVS) Against the Rasch Measurement Model Including Differences by Gender, Race, and AgeEvaluation Review
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Stopping Randomized Trials Early for Benefit and Estimation of Treatment Effects Systematic Review and Meta-regression Analysis
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 303():
Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryImpact of mucosal eosinophilia and nasal polyposis on quality-of-life outcomes after sinus surgeryOtolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
European Journal of CancerPersonality is associated with health status and impact of cancer among melanoma survivorsEuropean Journal of Cancer
European Journal of HaematologyWhat changes in health-related quality of life matter to multiple myeloma patients? A prospective studyEuropean Journal of Haematology
ChestMeasurement of COPD Severity Using a Survey-Based Score Validation in a Clinically and Physiologically Characterized CohortChest
Archives of Surgery
Correlations Between Endoscopy Score and Quality of Life Changes After Sinus Surgery
Archives of Surgery, 145(4):
American Journal of Sports MedicineTwo- to 4-Year Follow-up to a Comparison of Home Versus Physical Therapy-Supervised Rehabilitation Programs After Anterior Cruciate Ligament ReconstructionAmerican Journal of Sports Medicine
Journal of Clinical EpidemiologyLinking measurement error to minimal important change of patient-reported outcomesJournal of Clinical Epidemiology
LaryngoscopeFatigue Improvement Following Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisLaryngoscope
Journal of RheumatologyProposed Metrics for the Determination of Rheumatoid Arthritis Outcome and Treatment Success and FailureJournal of Rheumatology
Diabetes Technology & TherapeuticsPatient-Reported Outcomes for an Integrated Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring/Insulin Pump SystemDiabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Journal of EndourologyHealth-Related Quality of Life in I-125 Prostate Brachytherapy Patients Treated with and without Volume-Reducing Hormone Therapy: Results of a Short-Term Prospective StudyJournal of Endourology
Journal of Pain and Symptom ManagementMagnitude and Correlates of Response Shift in Fatigue Ratings in Women Undergoing Adjuvant Therapy for Breast CancerJournal of Pain and Symptom Management
Bmc CancerHealth - related quality of life of Kuwaiti women with breast cancer: a comparative study using the EORTC Quality of Life QuestionnaireBmc Cancer
Journal of Aging and HealthImpact of functional limitations and medical comorbidity on subsequent weight changes and increased depressive symptoms in older adultsJournal of Aging and Health
Journal of UrologyUrinary and sexual quality of life 1 year following robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomyJournal of Urology
Osteoarthritis and CartilageDoes the hip powder of Rosa canina (rosehip) reduce pain in osteoarthritis patients? a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsOsteoarthritis and Cartilage
Health and Quality of Life OutcomesThe de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI): An essential health index for an ageing worldHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
Movement DisordersSCOPA-Sleep and PDSS: Two scales for assessment of sleep disorder in Parkinson's diseaseMovement Disorders
OphthalmologyVision Impairment, Ocular Conditions, and Vision-specific Function: The Singapore Malay Eye StudyOphthalmology
Journal of Pain and Symptom ManagementA randomized, double-blind, multi-site, crossover, placebo-controlled equivalence study of morning versus evening once-daily sustained-release morphine sulfate in people with pain from advanced cancerJournal of Pain and Symptom Management
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Cognitive functioning and acute sedative effects of risperidone and quetiapine in patients with stable bipolar I disorder: A randomized, double-blind, crossover study
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68(8):
Journal of Clinical NursingThe effects of gender and age on health-related quality of life following kidney transplantationJournal of Clinical Nursing
Journal of Dermatological TreatmentImpact of adalimumab treatment on patient-reported outcomes: Results from a Phase III clinical trial in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasisJournal of Dermatological Treatment
Journal of UrologyThe impact of treatment choice for localized prostate cancer on response to phosphodiesterase inhibitorsJournal of Urology
Journal of PainInterpreting the clinical importance of treatment outcomes in chronic pain clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendationsJournal of Pain
Quality of Life ResearchAnalyzing oncology clinical trial data using the Q-TWiST method: Clinical importance and sources for health state preference dataQuality of Life Research
Oncology Nursing Forum
A patient orientation program at a comprehensive cancer center
Oncology Nursing Forum, 33(3):
Lung CancerEfficient palliation in patients with small-cell lung cancer by a combination of paclitaxel, etoposide and carboplatin: Quality of life and 6-years'-follow-up results from a randomised phase III trialLung Cancer
Quality of Life ResearchThe mathematical relationship among different forms of responsiveness coefficientsQuality of Life Research
OncologistAssessing responsiveness of cancer-related fatigue instruments: Distribution-based and individual anchor-based methodsOncologist
Journal of Sexual Medicine
Key methodological issues in sexual medicine research (CME)
Journal of Sexual Medicine, 4(3):
CancerParent-Child Communication Patterns During the First Year After a Parent's Cancer Diagnosis The Effect on Parents' FunctioningCancer
Clinical and Experimental AllergyLongitudinal validity and responsiveness of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form in children 0-12 years following positive and negative food challengesClinical and Experimental Allergy
Quality of Life ResearchValidation of the PAGI-SYM and PAGI-QOL among healing and maintenance of erosive esophagitis clinical trial participantsQuality of Life Research
Patient-centered outcomes Translating clinical efficacy into benefits on health-related quality of life
Scandinavian Journal of GastroenterologyHealth-related quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease five years after the initial diagnosisScandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Value in Health
Using multiple anchor- and distribution-based estimates to evaluate clinically meaningful change on the functional assessment of Cancer Therapy-Biologic Response Modifiers (FACT-BRM) instrument
Value in Health, 8(2):
Quality of Life ResearchReliability and validity of functional health status and health-related quality of life questionnaires in children with recurrent acute otitis mediaQuality of Life Research
Neurourology and UrodynamicsThe minimal important change of the PRAFAB questionnaire in women with stress urinary incontinence: Results from a prospective cohort studyNeurourology and Urodynamics
Movement DisordersLongitudinal psychometric attributes, responsiveness, and importance of change: An approach using the SCOPA-Psychosocial QuestionnaireMovement Disorders
Effect of eltrombopag on platelet counts and bleeding during treatment of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Inflammatory Bowel DiseasesAppraisal of the Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI)Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Bone Marrow TransplantationLongitudinal health-related quality of life outcomes and related factors after pediatric SCTBone Marrow Transplantation
Health EconomicsRelative risk of a shuffled deck: a generalizable logical consistency criterion for sample selection in health state valuation studiesHealth Economics
Clinical RehabilitationReliability and sensitivity to change of measurement instruments used in a traumatic brain injury populationClinical Rehabilitation
Journal of Clinical OncologyQuality of life for women diagnosed with breast carcinoma in situJournal of Clinical Oncology
ChestThe influence of perceived control of asthma on health outcomesChest
Multiple SclerosisImpact of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: the Fatigue Impact Scale for Daily Use (D-FIS)Multiple Sclerosis
Journal of Sexual MedicineMethods to determine the minimum important difference for a sexual event diary used by postmenopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorderJournal of Sexual Medicine
Quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and treatment preference associated with use of a pen device delivering a premixed 70/30 insulin aspart suspension (aspart protamine suspension/soluble aspart) versus alternative treatment strategies
Diabetes Care, 27():
Journal of Clinical EpidemiologyA combination of distribution- and anchor-based approaches determined minimally important differences (MIDs) for four endpoints in a breast cancer scaleJournal of Clinical Epidemiology
PainThe association between pain and disabilityPain
Current Medical Research and OpinionAn observational study of health-related quality of life and pain outcomes in chronic low back pain patients treated with fentanyl transdermal systemCurrent Medical Research and Opinion
Annals of Internal Medicine
Patients' global ratings of their health care are not associated with the technical quality of their care
Annals of Internal Medicine, 144(9):
American Journal of Kidney DiseasesQuality of life in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension: Effects of blood pressure managementAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Movement DisordersPsychometric Attributes of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in Parkinson's DiseaseMovement Disorders
Value in HealthRecommendations on Evidence Needed to Support Measurement Equivalence between Electronic and Paper-Based Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Measures: ISPOR ePRO Good Research Practices Task Force ReportValue in Health
Journal of Pediatric PsychologyEditorial: Assessing and Enhancing Clinical Significance/Social Validity of Intervention Research in Pediatric Psychology*Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Journal of UrologyDo Anxiety and Distress Increase During Active Surveillance for Low Risk Prostate Cancer?Journal of Urology
European UrologyThe effect of a distance-learning programme on patient self-management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in general practice: A randomised controlled trialEuropean Urology
Quality of Life Research
Responsiveness of the generic EQ-5D summary measure compared to the disease-specific EORTC QLQ C-30
Quality of Life Research, 13(7):
Quality of Life ResearchSeparating gains and losses in health when calculating the minimum important difference for mapped utility measuresQuality of Life Research
Journal of Psychiatric ResearchDevelopment and evaluation of the Daily Assessment of Symptoms-Anxiety (DAS-A) scale to evaluate onset of symptom relief in patients with generalized anxiety disorderJournal of Psychiatric Research
Quality of Life ResearchComparative responsiveness and minimal change for the Oxford Elbow Score following surgeryQuality of Life Research
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology PhysicsBowel, Urinary, and Sexual Problems Among Long-Term Prostate Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based StudyInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
CancerBehavioral, Social, and Educational Outcomes After Pediatric Stem Cell Transplantation and Related FactorsCancer
European Journal of Oral SciencesDetermining the minimally important difference for the Oral Health Impact Profile-20European Journal of Oral Sciences
Journal of Autism and Developmental DisordersChange in autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors in adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorderJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-British VolumeThe use of the Oxford hip and knee scoresJournal of Bone and Joint Surgery-British Volume
European Journal of Dermatology
Infliximab treatment improves productivity among patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis
European Journal of Dermatology, 17(5):
Annals of NeurologyHealth-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis: Effects of NatalizumabAnnals of Neurology
Supportive Care in CancerQuality of life of parents with children living at home: when one parent has cancerSupportive Care in Cancer
Journal of Clinical OncologyPrevalence, severity, and impact of symptoms on female family caregivers of patients at the initiation of radiation therapy for prostate cancerJournal of Clinical Oncology
Journal of Sexual MedicineComparison between slidenafil-treated subjects with erectile dysfunction and control subjects on the self-esteem and relationship questionnaireJournal of Sexual Medicine
Acta Oto-LaryngologicaImpact of lateral parotidectomy for benign tumors on quality of lifeActa Oto-Laryngologica
Health and Quality of Life OutcomesHealth related quality of life in Malaysian children with thalassaemiaHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
Health and Quality of Life OutcomesReproducibility and responsiveness of the Symptom Severity Scale and the hand and finger function subscale of the Dutch arthritis impact measurement scales (Dutch-AIMS2-HFF) in primary care patients with wrist or hand problemsHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & PreventionProspective, longitudinal study of leisure-time exercise in women with early-stage breast cancerCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
Journal of PediatricsParental reports of health-related quality of life in young children with neurofibromatosis type 1: Influence of condition specific determinantsJournal of Pediatrics
Journal of the American Academy of DermatologyThe effect of adalimumab on reducing depression symptoms in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis: A randomized clinical trialJournal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Journal of Clinical OncologyIntensity-Modulated Chemoradiotherapy Aiming to Reduce Dysphagia in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer: Clinical and Functional ResultsJournal of Clinical Oncology
DiabetologiaCardiovascular disease risk factors, depression symptoms and antidepressant medicine use in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trial of weight loss in diabetesDiabetologia
Improving the responsiveness of rating scales - The challenge of stepping twice into the same river
Quality of Life ResearchEstimating clinically significant differences in quality of life outcomesQuality of Life Research
Annals of Thoracic SurgeryPatient-reported outcome after randomization to on-pump versus off-pump coronary artery surgeryAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Annals of Allergy Asthma & Immunology
Risk factors for death in adults with severe asthma
Annals of Allergy Asthma & Immunology, 101(2):
Value in HealthFurther Validation and Responsiveness Assessment of the Herpes Outbreak Impact Questionnaire and Herpes Symptom ChecklistValue in Health
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual ScienceThe Impact of Corrected and Uncorrected Refractive Error on Visual Functioning: The Singapore Malay Eye StudyInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Movement DisordersIntrajejunal Levodopa Infusion in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Multicenter Study of Effects on Nonmotor Symptoms and Quality of LifeMovement Disorders
Journal of Clinical EpidemiologyUse of both short musculoskeletal function assessment questionnaire and short form-36 among tibial-fracture patients was redundantJournal of Clinical Epidemiology
Breast Cancer Research and TreatmentPsychological distress and physical health in the year after diagnosis of DCIS or invasive breast cancerBreast Cancer Research and Treatment
Spine JournalUnderstanding the minimum clinically important difference: a review of concepts and methodsSpine Journal
Drug and Alcohol DependenceResponsiveness of EQ-5D utility indices in alcohol-dependent patientsDrug and Alcohol Dependence
BloodSexual function changes during the 5 years after high-dose treatment and hematopoietic cell transplantation for malignancy, with case-matched controls at 5 yearsBlood
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Minimal clinically important differences for outcome measures in COPD
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, 3(1):
Patient Education and CounselingTailored cognitive-behavioral therapy for fibromyalgia: Two case studiesPatient Education and Counseling
CancerImpact of computed tomography screening for lung cancer on participants in a randomized controlled trial (NELSON trial)Cancer
Health and Quality of Life OutcomesThe validity and responsiveness of three quality of life measures in the assessment of psoriasis patients: results of a phase II studyHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
Quality of Life ResearchMeasuring health status and decline in at-risk seniors residing in the community using the Health Utilities Index Mark 2Quality of Life Research
European Spine JournalDanish version of the Oswestry disability index for patients with low back pain. Part 2: Sensitivity, specificity and clinically significant improvement in two low back pain populationsEuropean Spine Journal
Journal of Hand Surgery-British and European VolumeThe SF-6D health utility index in carpal tunnel syndromeJournal of Hand Surgery-British and European Volume
American Journal of GastroenterologyCharacterization of health related quality of life (HRQOL) for patients with functional bowel disorder (FBD) and its response to treatmentAmerican Journal of Gastroenterology
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose compared with oral iron in the treatment of postpartum anemia - A randomized controlled trial
Obstetrics and Gynecology, 110(2):
Radiation OncologyRectal endoscopy findings following stereotactic body radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancerRadiation Oncology
Diabetes Technology & TherapeuticsEffect of Technosphere Inhaled Insulin on Quality of Life and Treatment SatisfactionDiabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsChemotherapy for advanced gastric cancerCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
OphthalmologyImpact of Diabetic Retinopathy on Vision-Specific FunctionOphthalmology
PediatricsHealth-related quality of life in children and adolescents who have a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorderPediatrics
Journal of Clinical OncologyHealth-related quality of life among child and adolescent survivors of childhood cancerJournal of Clinical Oncology
Journal of Clinical Oncology5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist with or without short-course dexamethasone in the prophylaxis of radiation induced emesis: A placebo-controlled randomized trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (SC19)Journal of Clinical Oncology
Clinical TherapeuticsComparison of Levalbuterol and racemic albuterol in hospitalized patients with acute asthma or COPD: A 2-week, multicenter, randomized, open-label studyClinical Therapeutics
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma SurgeryThe Oxford shoulder score revisitedArchives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Epilepsy & BehaviorQuality of life in childhood epilepsy: What is the level of agreement between youth and their parents?Epilepsy & Behavior
Journal of Pain and Symptom ManagementBarriers to Pain Management in a Community Sample of Chinese American Patients with CancerJournal of Pain and Symptom Management
Quality of Life ResearchValidation and calibration of the SF-36 health transition question against an external criterion of clinical change in health statusQuality of Life Research
Diabetes CareHow Does Treatment Satisfaction Work? Modeling determinants of treatment satisfaction and preferenceDiabetes Care
Movement DisordersThe metric properties of a novel non-motor symptoms scale for Parkinson's disease: Results from an international pilot studyMovement Disorders
European Journal of CancerHealth-related quality of life and health care utilisation among older long-term cancer survivors: A population-based studyEuropean Journal of Cancer
LaryngoscopeEndoscopic and quadity-of-life outcomes after, revision endoscopic sinus surgeryLaryngoscope
Journal of Rheumatology
Improved health-related quality of life for patients with active rheumatoid arthritis receiving rituximab - Results of the dose-ranging assessment: International clinical evaluation of rituximab in rheumatoid arthritis (DANCER) trial
Journal of Rheumatology, 35(1):
Journal of Clinical EpidemiologyRecommended methods for determining responsiveness and minimally important differences for patient-reported outcomesJournal of Clinical Epidemiology
Annals of OncologyFamily functioning and adolescents' emotional and behavioral problems: when a parent has cancerAnnals of Oncology
Current Problems in CancerFuture directions in QOL researchCurrent Problems in Cancer
Journals of Gerontology Series B-Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
The effects of the ACTIVE cognitive training trial on clinically relevant declines in health-related quality of life
Journals of Gerontology Series B-Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61(5):
Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryPractical guides to understanding sample size and minimal clinically important difference (MCID)Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
Journal of Clinical EpidemiologyThree methods for minimally important difference: no relationship was found with the net proportion of patients improvingJournal of Clinical Epidemiology
Journal of Psychiatric ResearchSelf-assessment of functional status in schizophreniaJournal of Psychiatric Research
Journal of Clinical EpidemiologyContinuous event recorders did not affect anxiety or quality of life in patients with palpitationsJournal of Clinical Epidemiology
Clinical TherapeuticsModified Visual Analog Scale Symptom-Intensity and Overall-Bother Measures for the Assessment of Symptoms in Studies of Pharmacologic Stress AgentsClinical Therapeutics
Expert Opinion on PharmacotherapyThe treatment and prevention of knee osteoarthritis: a tool for clinical decision-makingExpert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Bmc Health Services Research'PhysioDirect' telephone assessment and advice services for physiotherapy: protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trialBmc Health Services Research
British Journal of CancerShort-term health-related quality of life consequences in a lung cancer CT screening trial (NELSON)British Journal of Cancer
American Heart JournalHealth-related quality of life and long-term mortality in patients treated with percutaneous coronary interventionAmerican Heart Journal
Psychosomatic MedicineThe effect of a telephone counseling intervention on self-rated health of cardiac patientsPsychosomatic Medicine
Pace-Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
Poor health-related quality of life of patients with indication for chronic cardiac pacemaker therapy
Pace-Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 31(4):
EndoscopyImpact of bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy on quality of life: a longitudinal study after multidisciplinary treatmentEndoscopy
Archives of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationThe Impact of Adaptive Seating Devices on the Lives of Young Children With Cerebral Palsy and Their FamiliesArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Journal of RheumatologyThe Minimally Important Difference for the Health Assessment Questionnaire in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Practice Is Smaller Than in Randomized Controlled TrialsJournal of Rheumatology
Diabetes EducatorPsychometric Properties of an Instrument for Assessing Treatment Satisfaction Associated With Pramlintide UseDiabetes Educator
Bmc Health Services ResearchStudy protocol of psychometric properties of the Spanish translation of a competence test in evidence based practice: The Fresno testBmc Health Services Research
Clinical RehabilitationA systematic review of the Human Activity ProfileClinical Rehabilitation
Journal of Hand Surgery-American VolumeComparison of instruments to assess hand function in children with radius deficienciesJournal of Hand Surgery-American Volume
Nightly treatment of primary insomnia with eszopiclone for six months: Effect on sleep, quality of life, and work limitations
Journal of Affective DisordersThe responsiveness of EQ-5D utility scores in patients with depression: A comparison with instruments measuring quality of life, psychopathology and social functioningJournal of Affective Disorders
European Respiratory JournalOutcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkersEuropean Respiratory Journal
American Journal of OphthalmologyChanges in the quality-of-life of people with keratoconusAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology
International Urogynecology JournalA validated self-administered female pelvic floor questionnaireInternational Urogynecology Journal
Psycho-OncologyDisparities in mental health between rural and nonrural cancer survivors: a preliminary studyPsycho-Oncology
StrokeAgreement between patient and proxy assessments of health-related quality of life after stroke using the EQ-5D and health utilities indexStroke
Journal of Neuro-OncologyProspective study of quality of life in adults with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomasJournal of Neuro-Oncology
Current Medical Research and OpinionRandomized trial comparing polymer-coated extended-release morphine sulfate to controlled-release oxycodone HCl in moderate to severe nonmalignant painCurrent Medical Research and Opinion
Health and Quality of Life OutcomesDecomposition of sources of income-related health inequality applied on SF-36 summary scores: a Danish health surveyHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
Disability and RehabilitationThe health and psychosocial functioning of caregivers of children with neurodevelopmental disordersDisability and Rehabilitation
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in SportsThe relationship between physical activity and health-related quality of life: a systematic review of current evidenceScandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in Health Care Settings A Randomized Trial
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 302(5):
Prostate Cancer and Prostatic DiseasesEducation as a predictor of quality of life outcomes among disadvantaged menProstate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical TherapyClinical Interpretation of Computerized Adaptive Test Outcome Measures in Patients With Foot/Ankle ImpairmentsJournal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy
Quality of Life ResearchThe Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire for children: responsiveness and longitudinal validityQuality of Life Research
New England Journal of Medicine
Quality of life and satisfaction with outcome among prostate-cancer survivors
New England Journal of Medicine, 358():
Measurement of the evaluative capacity of the CVP-35 questionnaire for perceiving the quality of professional life
Atencion Primaria, 40(7):
Annals of Internal Medicine
Comparative Benefits and Harms of Second-Generation Antidepressants: Background Paper for the American College of Physicians
Annals of Internal Medicine, 149():
Spine JournalMinimum clinically important difference in lumbar spine surgery patients: a choice of methods using the Oswestry Disability Index, Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire Short Form 36, and Pain ScalesSpine Journal
Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgerySystematic review of change in bodily pain after sinus surgeryOtolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
Value in HealthCross-Cultural Validation of the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Psychosocial Questionnaire (SCOPA-PS) in Four Latin American CountriesValue in Health
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric EpidemiologyResponse categories and anger measurement: do fewer categories result in poorer measurement?Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Journal of Rheumatology
Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis patients with abatacept and methotrexate significantly improved health-related quality of life
Journal of Rheumatology, 33(4):
Supportive Care in CancerThe clinical significance of quality of life assessments in oncology: a summary for cliniciansSupportive Care in Cancer
RheumatologyImproved health-related quality of life for rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with abatacept who have inadequate response to anti-TNF therapy in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre randomized clinical trialRheumatology
CancerEducation predicts quality of life among men with prostate cancer cared for in the department of veterans affairs - A longitudinal quality of life analysis from CaPSURECancer
Quality of Life ResearchResponse shift due to diagnosis and primary treatment of localized prostate cancer: a then-test and a vignette studyQuality of Life Research
Journal of Clinical EpidemiologyMind the MIC: large variation among populations and methodsJournal of Clinical Epidemiology
Health and Quality of Life OutcomesValidity and responsiveness of the EQ-5D in assessing and valuing health status in patients with anxiety disordersHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
European Journal of CancerAnalysis and interpretation of health-related quality-of-life data from clinical trials: basic approach of The National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials GroupEuropean Journal of Cancer
Evaluation & the Health ProfessionsGeneral population and cancer patient norms for the functional assessment of cancer therapy-general (FACT-G)Evaluation & the Health Professions
Annals of Allergy Asthma & Immunology
Impact of depressive symptoms on adult asthma outcomes
Annals of Allergy Asthma & Immunology, 94(5):
HeadacheValidation of the revised patient perception of migraine questionnaire: Measuring satisfaction with acute migraine treatmentHeadache
British Journal of DermatologyImpact of adalimumab treatment on health-related quality of life and other patient-reported outcomes: results from a 16-week randomized controlled trial in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasisBritish Journal of Dermatology
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology PhysicsQuality of life during neoadjuvant treatment and after surgery for resectable esophageal carcinomaInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
American Journal of RhinologyThe effects of endoscopic sinus surgery on level of fatigue in patients with chronic rhinosinusitisAmerican Journal of Rhinology
Palliative MedicineContinued study of the psychometric properties of the McGill quality of life questionnairePalliative Medicine
Patient Education and CounselingHealth literacy and physical and psychological wellbeing in Japanese adultsPatient Education and Counseling
Responsiveness of different rating instruments in spinocerebellar ataxia patients
Journal of Rheumatology
Sleep disturbance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Evaluation by medical outcomes study and visual analog sleep scales
Journal of Rheumatology, 33():
Minimal, to the point important changes in diagnosed quality of life
Ceskoslovenska Psychologie, 50(6):
Quality of Life ResearchFeasibility, reliability, and validity of adolescent health status measurement by the Child Health Questionnaire Child Form (CHQ-CF): internet administration compared with the standard paper versionQuality of Life Research
PainThe use of a responder analysis to identify differences in patient outcomes following a self-care intervention to improve cancer pain managementPain
American Journal of CardiologyQuality of life within one year following presentation after transient loss of consciousnessAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Quality of Life ResearchHow can quality of life researchers make their work more useful to health workers and their patients?Quality of Life Research
Current Medical Research and OpinionHealth perceptions and clinical characteristics of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients: baseline data from an international clinical trialCurrent Medical Research and Opinion
TrialsStopping randomized trials early for benefit: a protocol of the Study Of Trial Policy Of Interim Truncation-2 (STOPIT-2)Trials
Journal of General Internal Medicine
A survey of internal medicine residents and faculty about the duration of attendings' inpatient rotations
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 19():
Quality of Life ResearchThe impact of non-traumatic hip and knee disorders on health-related quality of life as measured with the SF-36 or SF-12. A systematic reviewQuality of Life Research
Journal of Rheumatology
Static wrist splint use in the performance of daily activities by individuals with rheumatoid arthritis
Journal of Rheumatology, 32():
Neurorehabilitation and Neural RepairEccentric Versus Concentric Resistance Training to Enhance Neuromuscular Activation and Walking Speed Following StrokeNeurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Journal of Pain and Symptom ManagementMinimal Clinically Important Differences in the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System in Patients With Advanced CancerJournal of Pain and Symptom Management
Health and Quality of Life OutcomesPsychometric evaluation of a visual analog scale for the assessment of anxietyHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
Social Science & MedicineHealth outcomes of Experience Corps (R): A high-commitment volunteer programSocial Science & Medicine
Journal of Pain and Symptom ManagementValidation and Application of the Arabic Version of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory in Moroccan Patients With CancerJournal of Pain and Symptom Management
Bmc Public HealthDesign of the DIRECT-project: interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homesBmc Public Health
Health and Quality of Life OutcomesGender differences in health-related quality of life of adolescents with cystic fibrosisHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
Bju InternationalDoes diabetes mellitus as a comorbid condition affect the health-related quality of life in prostate cancer survivors? Results of a population-based observational studyBju International
Kidney InternationalInterpretation and review of health-related quality of life data in CKD patients receiving treatment for anemiaKidney International
European Journal of Oncology NursingDevelopment in quality of relationship between the significant other and the lung cancer patient as perceived by the significant otherEuropean Journal of Oncology Nursing
Journal of Clinical EpidemiologyThe Singaporean English and Chinese versions of the EQ-5D achieved measurement equivalence in cancer patientsJournal of Clinical Epidemiology
Journals of Gerontology Series B-Psychological Sciences and Social SciencesAntecedents of Global Decline in Health-Related Quality of Life Among Middle-Aged African AmericansJournals of Gerontology Series B-Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Quality of Life ResearchAssociation of insomnia with quality of life, work productivity, and activity impairmentQuality of Life Research
Preventive MedicinePhysical activity level and health-related quality of life in the general adult population: A systematic reviewPreventive Medicine
ThoraxAssessing the impact of pulmonary rehabilitation on functional status in COPDThorax
Journal of Pain and Symptom ManagementThe symptom experience of oncology outpatients has a different impact on quality-of-life outcomesJournal of Pain and Symptom Management
American Journal of Kidney DiseasesThe effect of increasing dialysis dose in overweight hemodialysis patients on quality of life: A 6-week randomized crossover trialAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Value in HealthPsychometric validation of the Cancer Therapy Satisfaction QuestionnaireValue in Health
Developmental Medicine and Child NeurologyParent and professional reports of the quality of life of children with cerebral palsy and associated intellectual impairmentDevelopmental Medicine and Child Neurology
RheumatologyPerformance-based methods for measuring the physical function of patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a systematic review of measurement propertiesRheumatology
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Are psychological interventions effective and accepted by cancer patients? I. Standards and levels of evidence
Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 32(2):
Journal of Consulting and Clinical PsychologyHow stress management improves quality of life after treatment for breast cancerJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
British Journal of DermatologyItch Severity Scale: a self-report instrument for the measurement of pruritus severityBritish Journal of Dermatology
GastroenterologyDevelopment, validation, and evaluation of a pediatric ulcerative colitis activity index: A prospective multicenter studyGastroenterology
Journal of Behavioral Health Services & ResearchMeasuring clinically meaningful change following mental health treatmentJournal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
Journal of Clinical OncologyCommunicating and Understanding the Purpose of Pediatric Phase I Cancer TrialsJournal of Clinical Oncology
Supportive Care in CancerThe minimal clinical important difference in the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-100Supportive Care in Cancer
NeurorehabilitationMeasuring mobility in patients living in the community with Parkinson diseaseNeurorehabilitation
Health and Quality of Life OutcomesMinimal clinically important differences for the EQ-5D and QWB-SA in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): results from a Doubly Randomized Preference Trial (DRPT)Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Psychological AssessmentDimensionality, Hierarchical Structure, Age Generalizability, and Criterion Validity of the GAIN's Behavioral Complexity ScalePsychological Assessment
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric EpidemiologyHousing First improves subjective quality of life among homeless adults with mental illness: 12-month findings from a randomized controlled trial in Vancouver, British ColumbiaSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Fertility and SterilityTime costs of fertility care: the hidden hardship of building a familyFertility and Sterility
Health and Quality of Life OutcomesDevelopment and validation of the self-management profile for type 2 diabetes (SMP-T2D)Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
European Journal of PediatricsHealth-related quality of life and symptom reporting: similarities and differences between children and their parentsEuropean Journal of Pediatrics
Contemporary Clinical TrialsThe PAADRN Study: A design for a randomized controlled practical clinical trial to improve bone healthContemporary Clinical Trials
International PsychogeriatricsBenefit of an integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program to reduce multiple psychiatric symptoms of psychogeriatric patients and caregiver burden after six months of follow-up: a re-analysis of a randomized controlled trialInternational Psychogeriatrics
Bju InternationalFactors associated with satisfaction with prostate cancer care: results from Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE)Bju International
ThyroidFatigue Among Short- and Long-Term Thyroid Cancer Survivors: Results from the Population-Based PROFILES RegistryThyroid
American Journal of AudiologyPsychometric Evaluation of Visual Analog Scale for the Assessment of Chronic TinnitusAmerican Journal of Audiology
British Journal of CancerQuality of life after prostate cancer treatments in patients comparable at baselineBritish Journal of Cancer
Bmj OpenA primary care Symptoms Clinic for patients with medically unexplained symptoms: pilot randomised trialBmj Open
CerebellumInventory of Non-Ataxia Signs (INAS): Validation of a New Clinical Assessment InstrumentCerebellum
Quality of Life ResearchTen-year change in self-rated quality of life in a type 1 diabetes population: Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic RetinopathyQuality of Life Research
Bmc MedicineAdditional Saturday rehabilitation improves functional independence and quality of life and reduces length of stay: a randomized controlled trialBmc Medicine
Journal of Psychosomatic ResearchMindfulness therapy for somatization disorder and functional somatic syndromes - Randomized trial with one-year follow-upJournal of Psychosomatic Research
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology"Spydergrams" to depict the results of the Short Form-36 questionnaire: a work in progress ResponseJournal of Clinical Epidemiology
Diabetic MedicineTreatment satisfaction in the Sensor-Augmented Pump Therapy for A1C Reduction 3 (STAR3) trialDiabetic Medicine
Psycho-OncologyMultiple primary cancer survivors have poorer health status and well-being than single primary cancer survivors: a study from the population-based PROFILES registryPsycho-Oncology
Clinical TherapeuticsDevelopment and Psychometric Validation of the Intermittent Self-Catheterization QuestionnaireClinical Therapeutics
Bmj OpenLong-term impact of pregnancy-related venous thrombosis on quality-of-life, general health and functioning: results of a cross-sectional, case-control studyBmj Open
UrologyA Prospective Study of Transition From Laparoscopic to Robot-assisted Radical Prostatectomy: Quality of Life Outcomes After 36-Month Follow-upUrology
Supportive Care in CancerPhysical and mental health status of female adolescent/young adult survivors of breast and gynecological cancer: a national, population-based, case-control studySupportive Care in Cancer
Jama-Journal of the American Medical AssociationEarly Parenteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Patients With Short-term Relative Contraindications to Early Enteral Nutrition A Randomized Controlled TrialJama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Diabetes Technology & TherapeuticsTest-Retest, Responsiveness, and Minimal Important Change of the Ability to Perform Physical Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes and ObesityDiabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Diabetes Technology & TherapeuticsSensor-Augmented Pump Therapy at 36 MonthsDiabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Otjr-Occupation Participation and HealthEvaluating the Psychometric Properties of a Clinical Vocational Rehabilitation Outcome Measurement: The Assessment of Work Performance (AWP)Otjr-Occupation Participation and Health
AllergyDevelopment, validation, and initial results of the Angioedema Activity ScoreAllergy
Health Technology AssessmentStructure of this reportHealth Technology Assessment
Head and Neck-Journal for the Sciences and Specialties of the Head and NeckInfluence of pretreatment social support on health-related quality of life in head and neck cancer survivors: Results from a prospective studyHead and Neck-Journal for the Sciences and Specialties of the Head and Neck
Journal of Neurosurgery-SpineAssessment of the minimum clinically important difference in pain, disability, and quality of life after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion Clinical articleJournal of Neurosurgery-Spine
Digestive SurgeryElective Resection for Ongoing Diverticular Disease Significantly Improves Quality of LifeDigestive Surgery
Journal of Clinical OncologyQuality of Life Among Long-Term Survivors of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Follow-Up StudyJournal of Clinical Oncology
Patient-Patient Centered Outcomes ResearchPsychometric Evaluation of the Cushing's Quality-of-Life QuestionnairePatient-Patient Centered Outcomes Research
DiagnosticaSuitability of the IRES-24 Questionnaire for the evaluation of health-related preventive measures: The example of weight reductionDiagnostica
Journal of Palliative MedicineThe Longitudinal Pattern of Response When Morphine Is Used To Treat Chronic Refractory DyspneaJournal of Palliative Medicine
Tafamidis for Transthyretin Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy: A Randomized, Controlled Trial
Schizophrenia ResearchPredictors of cognitive and functional improvement and normalization after cognitive remediation in patients with schizophreniaSchizophrenia Research
Bmc NeurologyThe role of exercise in modifying outcomes for people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized trialBmc Neurology
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and ResearchChanges in leg pain after bilateral fasciotomy to treat chronic compartment syndrome: a case series studyJournal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma SurgeryPredicting patient satisfaction using the Oxford knee score: where do we draw the line?Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
European Journal of CancerQuantifying fatigue in (long-term) colorectal cancer survivors: A study from the population-based Patient Reported Outcomes Following Initial treatment and Long term Evaluation of Survivorship registryEuropean Journal of Cancer
HpbThe long-term effect of bile duct injuries on health-related quality of life: a meta-analysisHpb
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Long-term efficacy and improvement of health-related quality of life in patients with Takayasu's arteritis treated with infliximab
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 30(6):
Journal of Vascular SurgeryComparing endovenous laser ablation, foam sclerotherapy, and conventional surgery for great saphenous varicose veinsJournal of Vascular Surgery
RehabilitationEmpirically Derived Recommendations for Measuring Patient-Reported Change in Rehabilitation StudiesRehabilitation
Lancet OncologyPalliative use of non-invasive ventilation in end-of-life patients with solid tumours: a randomised feasibility trialLancet Oncology
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Primary Care vs Specialist Sleep Center Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Daytime Sleepiness and Quality of Life A Randomized Trial
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 309():
Clinical RehabilitationA randomized trial of two home-based exercise programmes to improve functional walking post-strokeClinical Rehabilitation
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty AcidsEffects of fish oil supplementation on learning and behaviour of children from Australian Indigenous remote community schools: A randomised controlled trialProstaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids
Journal of Allergy and Clinical ImmunologyReliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Rhinitis Control Assessment Test in patients with rhinitisJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Clinical Breast CancerThe Validity and Utility of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory in Patients With Breast Cancer: Evidence From the Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns Data From the Eastern Cooperative Oncology GroupClinical Breast Cancer
RheumatologyDisease impact of hand OA compared with hip, knee and generalized disease in specialist rheumatology health careRheumatology
Journal of Orthopaedic ScienceAn uncemented metal-backed glenoid component in total shoulder arthroplasty for osteoarthritis: factors affecting survival and outcomeJournal of Orthopaedic Science
Bmc GastroenterologyThe burden of hepatitis C in Europe from the patients' perspective: a survey in 5 countriesBmc Gastroenterology
Annals of HematologyPersisting fatigue in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors: a systematic reviewAnnals of Hematology
Quality of Life ResearchThe Fatigue Associated with Depression Questionnaire (FAsD): responsiveness and responder definitionQuality of Life Research
Annals of OncologyEffect of abiraterone acetate on fatigue in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after docetaxel chemotherapyAnnals of Oncology
Health EconomicsCost-Minimisation Analysis Versus Cost-Effectiveness Analysis, RevisitedHealth Economics
International Forum of Allergy & RhinologyQuality-of-life outcomes following multiple revision endoscopic sinus surgeryInternational Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive BiologyImpact of alternative management policies on health-related quality of life in women with low-grade abnormal cervical cytology referred for colposcopyEuropean Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
Journal of Neuroengineering and RehabilitationConcurrent neuromechanical and functional gains following upper-extremity power training post-strokeJournal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Respiratory CareEvaluation of a Peer-Led Asthma Self-Management Program and Benefits of the Program for Adolescent Peer LeadersRespiratory Care
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and VenereologyThe Skin Cancer Quality of Life Impact Tool (SCQOLIT): a validated health-related quality of life questionnaire for non-metastatic skin cancersJournal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
European Heart JournalPredictors of functional decline in elderly patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)European Heart Journal
Clinical RehabilitationInitial psychometric evaluation of the Arm Activity Measure (ArmA): a measure of activity in the hemiparetic armClinical Rehabilitation
Journal of Clinical OncologyAdherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Recommendations for Cancer Prevention Is Associated With Better Health-Related Quality of Life Among Elderly Female Cancer SurvivorsJournal of Clinical Oncology
Clinical Respiratory JournalQuality of life in children and adolescents with respiratory allergy, assessed with a generic and disease-specific instrumentClinical Respiratory Journal
Bmc Health Services ResearchDesign of the DISCovery project: tailored work-oriented interventions to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes in hospital careBmc Health Services Research
Journal of General Internal MedicineLower Health Literacy is Associated with Poorer Health Status and Outcomes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseJournal of General Internal Medicine
Journal of Cancer Survivorship-Research and PracticeDevelopment of a comprehensive health-related needs assessment for adult survivors of childhood cancerJournal of Cancer Survivorship-Research and Practice
CancerPatient-Reported Outcomes After 3-Dimensional Conformal, Intensity-Modulated, or Proton Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate CancerCancer
Hematology-American Society Hematology Education ProgramHealth-related quality of life in patients with hemoglobinopathiesHematology-American Society Hematology Education Program
Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and PsychiatryA pragmatic parallel arm multi-centre randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a group-based fatigue management programme (FACETS) for people with multiple sclerosisJournal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry
Health and Quality of Life OutcomesThe effect of empowerment on the self-efficacy, quality of life and clinical and laboratory indicators of patients treated with hemodialysis: a randomized controlled trialHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
Quality of Life ResearchMethods for interpreting change over time in patient-reported outcome measuresQuality of Life Research
Breast Cancer Research and TreatmentPain in long-term breast cancer survivors: the role of body mass index, physical activity, and sedentary behaviorBreast Cancer Research and Treatment
Radiation OncologyStereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for clinically localized prostate cancer: the Georgetown University experienceRadiation Oncology
Anales De PsicologiaClinical significance: false positives in the estimation of individual changeAnales De Psicologia
Psycho-OncologyReports of 'growth' in survivors of non-small cell lung cancer and healthy controls: what is the value-added by the cancer experience?Psycho-Oncology
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical TherapySingle-Step Test for Unilateral Limb Ability Following Total Knee ArthroplastyJournal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric EpidemiologyAssessing parent-child agreement in health-related quality of life among three health status groupsSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Acta OncologicaA phase II study of hypofractionated proton therapy for prostate cancerActa Oncologica
Annals of Behavioral MedicineFeasibility of an Online Mindfulness Program for Stress Management-A Randomized, Controlled TrialAnnals of Behavioral Medicine
OncologistOne-Year Effect of a Nurse-Led Psychosocial Intervention on Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer: A Randomized Controlled TrialOncologist
Bmc MedicineEffect of a multifactorial interdisciplinary intervention on mobility-related disability in frail older people: randomised controlled trialBmc Medicine
New England Journal of MedicineLevonorgestrel Intrauterine System versus Medical Therapy for MenorrhagiaNew England Journal of Medicine
Radiation OncologyComparison of quality of life after stereotactic body radiotherapy and surgery for early-stage prostate cancerRadiation Oncology
International Forum of Allergy & RhinologyMedical therapy vs surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis: a prospective, multi-institutional study with 1-year follow-upInternational Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
American Journal of Clinical OncologyWill Improvement in Quality of Life (QOL) Impact Fatigue in Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Advanced Cancer?American Journal of Clinical Oncology
European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & RehabilitationMulticenter randomized controlled trial of a home walking intervention after outpatient cardiac rehabilitation on health-related quality of life in womenEuropean Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation
Journal of Cardiovascular NursingAn Update on the Self-care of Heart Failure IndexJournal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Journal of Hospice & Palliative NursingFrontline Grief: The Workplace Support Needs of Community Palliative Care Nurses After the Death of a PatientJournal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing
Journal of Developmental & Behavioral PediatricsCaregiver-Reported Health Outcomes of Preschool Children Born at 28 to 32 Weeks' GestationJournal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics
Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryThe Science behind Quality-of-Life Measurement: A Primer for Plastic SurgeonsPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Quality of life; threshold; interpretation; MID; effect size
© 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
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